Publications HISTORICAL GEODESY 02.06.2012. ORIENTATION OF TEMPLES IN THEBES AND VALLEY OF KINGS
In recent years there is growing evidence that well-known historic objects are located on our planet not chaotically, but with a definite system. Researchers again and again discover the different laws connected with location and orientation of ancient structures. «Thanks to modern methods of research, such for example as a mapping program Google Earth, , whose potential has not been fully appreciated by most users, an opportunity is appeared to study ancient objects in terms of their orientation" - writes David Furlong (David Furlong) in the introduction of his book "The orientation of Egyptian temples." In this work he describes the orientation of some Egyptian temples, mainly in Thebes, associating them with the movement of the sun and the moon. So in Karnak, using astronomical software, Furlong discovered the orientation of temples to the point of summer and winter solstices. One of these orientations is given with the two temples of Sekhmet (a) and Hauptanlage des Amun (a), located to north of the main temple in Karnak. In the picture below, from the work of David Furlong, are shown the orientation of the main temple to the point of sunrise in a day of winter solstice and the orientation of Ptah (Hauptanlage des Amun) temple, and the whole architectural line, including the Sekhmetathe temple to main point of the southern moonrise. Also, on the images are shown the directions to other two temple complexes located in Luxor. If you extend the orientation line of Ptah temple turning it into a great circle, it will pass through some very interesting points of intersection of latitude and longitude of famous historical objects . For example, the line orientation of Ptah temple passes through the intersection of :
Thus, the line sequentially crosses the latitudes of 15, 20, 30 and 40 degrees on the meridians famous historical buildings. This line, as well as the line orientation of the Seti temple about which it will be discussed below, passes through Ossirion in Abydos. The line is perpendicular to the symmetry axis of Ossirion, remote from the temple of Ptah in Karnak on 90 kilometers. Now let s consider the orientation of the Karnak templeitself . This line also passes through the intersection with the latitudes and longitudes, and practically of the same objects. The line crosses: • Latitude of Nan Madol on the meridian of Teotihuacan. Perpendicular to this orientation, i.e the second orientation of the temple in Karnak, there is neither more nor less than the direction of the islands to the megaliths of the Vera Island, the distance to which is 3957 km, or 35.7 degrees. This is about 1|10 of the entire circumference of the Earth. In addition, this line passes through the intersection point of : • meridian of Easter Island with the 60th latitude. To the South of the main Karnak temple there are a few churches, the so-called Tempel - Mut Bezirk. Three of them, including the avenue of sphinxes, are oriented to the main temple, and one is perpendicular to this line. The orientation line of the three temples and avenues of sphinxes is the direction to Baalbek, the distance to which is 981 km. In addition, this line passes through the intersection of the polar circles with the meridian of Easter Island.
The third temple in Mut Bezirk, perpendicular to the main avenue of sphinxes, has an orientation Ramesseum - Uluru. But if, to the Ramesseum, which is on the other bank of the Nile – is 4.8 km., then to Uluru – is 11 978 km., which is three fifths from the half the length of great circle. In addition, this line passes through the intersection of :
• Lalibela Meridian with the North tropic.
• Vera island Meridian with the latitude of Angkor. • Nazca lines Meridian with the latitude of Angkor. Now let’s pass to the temple in Luxor. This temple has broken the symmetry axis and therefore has two directions of orientation. One of these directions is given with the northern part of the temple and passes through the temple in Karnak. The same direction is the orientation of the temple in the Port-Bajan, the distance to which is equal to 6081 km. or about 3/10 from the half length of the entire circumference.
Ramesseum, known for its granite colossus with weight over 1,000 tons, also has orientation to the intersection of latitude and longitude of famous historical objects . Orientation line of Ramesseum passes through the intersection points of :
• Solomon's temple Meridian with tropics.
• Easter island Meridian with the latitude of Nazca lines. • Meridian of Tiwanaku + 90* with the latitude of Baalbek. • Stonehenge Meridian + 90 * with the latitude of the Great Pyramid. Also it is interesting orientation of Seti I temple. Temple is exactly orientated to Ossirion in Abydos, which is located in 87 km. to the north-west, and its symmetry axis is perpendicular to the axis of Ossirion. In addition, the orientation line of the Network church 1 passes through the intersection points of :
• Uluru Meridian + 90 * with the latitude of Teotihuacan.
• Meridian of Port Bazhan with latitude of Easter Island. • Baalbek meridian with tropics David Furlong writes that the Network church 1 has orientation to the main southern point of moon rising. Temple of Network 1 and Luxor are separated from each other by 4 km, if we draw a line through their centers it will be direction to the Great Pyramid in Giza. In addition, this line passes through the intersection points of:
• Vera Island Meridian with the latitude of Stonehenge
• Nan Madol Meridian + 90 * with 60 latitude. If to draw a line through the center of Seti I temple and the Ramesseum one it will pass through several points of latitudes and meridians intersections such as the intersection of :
• the Great Pyramid Meridian with the latitude of Uluru.
• Nan Madol Meridian with equator. • the Great Pyramid Meridian + 90 * with the latitude of Teotihuacan. • Tiwanaku Meridian with tropics. • Teotihuacan Meridian with the latitude of the Great Pyramid. • Nazca lines Meridian with the latitude of Uluru (error is 12 km). According to Furlong, the Ramses3 temple in Medinet Abu Abu has astronomical orientation to Cassiopeia. If we continue this line, it will pass through the following intersection points of:
• the Great Pyramid Meridian with the latitude of Easter Island.
• Teotihuacan Meridian with the latitude of the Great Pyramid. • Easter Island Meridian with the latitude of Teotihuacan. • Ushtogay square Meridian with the latitude of Angkor. • Vera Island Meridian with the latitude of Nan Madol The line passes through the intersection of latitude of Stonehenge with meridians of Uluru and Nan Madol with the same accuracy in 24 km.
In this figure it is clearly seen another feature of the meridians. In this case the meridians of Teotihuacan and the Faith island are relatively symmetric to the meridian of Easter Island. In its turn the meridian of Ushtogaysk square is an axis of symmetry of the Faith island and the Easter Island meridians and the line orientation of the temple of Ramses 3 is a diagonal of symmetrical squares. The formation of these squares has become possible due to the fact that the latitude of Nan Madol, and Teotihuacan are relatively symmetrical to the latitude of Angkor.
David Furlong mentions one more orientation of храмов Hatshepsut and Menhotep teples in the Valley of Kings to the point of sunrise in a day of winter solstice. If we continue this direction the orientation line of temples will pass through the intersection points of :
• Mecca Meridian with tropics.
• Tiwanaku Meridian with latitude of Nazca Lines. • Nan Madol Meridian with the latitude of the Great Pyramid. • Vatican Meridian with the latitude of the Great Pyramid. • Por Bazhan Meridian with the latitude of Nan Madol. (Error is 16 km.) Having summarized what has been said above, it is possible to make the assumption that the Egyptian temples in ancient Thebes represent themselves a single set of navigational astronomy, created by unknown architects.
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