In this part we will see how ancient structures are oriented in South America. Let's start with the main navigation system, which works for the entire continent and is a key point in the system of ancient monumental buildings - Tiwanaku.
The complex is oriented to the cardinal points, but in its layout it contains a pentagram, the axis of which pass through the corners of temples and the nearby pyramid.
Norte Chico culture or culture of Caral-Supe is - pre-Columbian civilization in the region Norte Chico on the north-central coast of Peru. This is the oldest known pre-Columbian States of America, flourished during the period from XXX to XVIII centuries. BC in so-called pre-ceramic period. Alternative title comes from the name of place Caral in the Supe Valley to the north from Lima, where was discovered a major archaeological monument of this culture.
Caral first was discovered by archaeologist Ruth Shady Solis in 1997. According to archaeological nomenclature, Norte Chico is a pre-ceramic culture of the late archaic period; ceramics is completely absent, the number of works of art is extremely small. The most impressive achievement Norte Chico civilization is its monumental architecture, including undulating platform and round the square.
The basic layout of the city corresponds to hexagram, but there are separate structures oriented according to pentagram.
In river valleys Casma and Sechin, in almost four hundred kilometers to the north from Peru's capital, Lima, they looked for gold of Incas. But, what archaeologists have found from Germany and Peru, for scientists, perhaps more important jewelry collection time of the Spanish conquest.
Here is found the most ancient monumental building of the New World. This building, built of raw brick, is built almost on nine centuries before Caral, "the first town in America." By the method of radiocarbon analysis it is dated 3400 - 3200 years BC. While in the Nile Valley not yet born empire of the pharaohs and about the construction of the pyramids nobody even dreamed of. Well, at least, think so.
One of the buildings of Casma is oriented along the azimuth of 100° and corresponds to nonagon. Layout of the city, which located nearby also corresponds to nonagon.
Other structure located nearby is oriented along the azimuth of 45° and corresponds to octagon.
The most interesting is that next to these ruins, begins the line - geoglyph, which is also oriented according to octagon.
Chan Chan is the capital of the Indian state of Chimu (about 12 in.) on the north coast of modern Peru. Probably,chimus were descendants of the ancient Mochica, first inhabited these places. Powerful state ruled by chiefs and priests. The area of ??the city exceeded 20 km2.
Rulers lived in rectangular palace complex, enclosed with high walls. The ruins of pyramids, temples, palaces, remains of water and sewer pipes preserved. The walls of the buildings were fobbed off with ornate relief ornament.
In planning of a huge complex are presented almost all correct figures.
On the territory of Peru, the earliest pre-Inca culture, whose members built the first cities on this earth, was so-called Chavin culture. It received its name by the name of ??Chavin de Huantar area, located at the height of 3048 m, in the mountainous part of northern Peru. Here archaeologists found the remains of structures built with dry masonry slabs of sandstone and basalt, and a network of drainage canals. Today zone of Chavin de Huantar is declared as archaeological reserve, monuments of which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The main temple of Chavin is designed and oriented according to hexagram.
Choquequirao, like Machu Picchu, is a lost city in the mountains of the ancient Inca empire. Its name (Choquequirao) in translation from the Quechua language means "Cradle of Gold". Researchers and archaeologists assume that the region was, most likely, built during the reign of King- emperor of Incas Pachacuti and served as the last bastion of resistance and a haven for those who fled from Cusco, when to the city came the Spanish conquerors.
Sacred citadel is located at around 3085 meters among peaks of the Salkantay mountain range, towering above the valley of the Apurimac River. The entire complex covers approximately 1,800 hectares of territory on which there are buildings orientated according to the 9 and 5-gon.
Huchuy Qosqo or Uchuy Cuzco, literally "little pieces" is archaeological object in the province of Kalka region Cusco to the north from the city of Cusco in Peru. It is located at the height of about 3600 m above sea level, above the town of Lamai and the Sacred Valley of the Incas. During the Spanish conquest this place was called Kahya Khavana (Quechua K'ajya Qhawana), what means "where the lightning looks."
The complex is oriented along the azimuth of 108 * and corresponds to pentagram.
Inca huasi ruina.
Little-known structure called Inca huasi ruina, built with using of polygonal masonry is oriented according to nonagon along the azimuth of 40 degrees.
Another place called Intihuatana is oriented according to pentagram along the azimuth of 36°.
Machu Picchu (in translation from Quechua language is "a great top") a city of ancient America, located on the territory of modern Peru. Also Machu Picchu is often called a "city in the sky" or "city of the clouds." Sometimes it is called "the lost city of Incas." This city was built as a sacred mountain shelter by the great ruler of Incas Pachacutec before the century till the conquest of his empire, that is about 1440 and functioned until 1532, when the Spaniards invaded the Inca Empire. In 1532, all its inhabitants mysteriously disappeared.
But in fact no one knows significantly by whom, when and for what was built Machu Picchu. People in the city have never lived, because there is no cultural layer and it is not found any artifacts indicating the human habitation in this place.
The city is built with high-tech stone processing and demonstrates the various construction methods, which are found in many places on the planet. There was even a version that Machu Picchu is a kind of exhibition of building technologies. But, the city is more like a park for storage of construction equipment with compartments for different machines which built Sacsayhuaman, Sigiriya and many other objects. Different machines built for themselves hangars according to their functionality, that’s why there were different styles of construction, that’s why there is no trace of men who could not get into a specially selected remote places.
Many buildings in Machu Picchu are oriented according to angles of regular geometric shapes.
A city Markauamachuko built of stone on the height of 3700 meters above sea level covers the area of ??240 hectares. Archaeologists do not know till now about its creators and residents. "We do not know to what culture belongs Markauamachuko. Investigations were only able to give the time of its construction between 350 and 400 AD, but we do not know when people came here and how much they stayed here".
The main temple in Markauamachuko is oriented along the azimuth of 54 *, which corresponds to the angle of pentagram.
Maukallakta are ancient ruins on a slope of hill, needlessly deprived by tourist attention. The object is located in 45 kilometers to the south of ancient capital of Inca Cusco. The place itself, where the Maukallakta is located has a sacred character for local people as according to legends here the power of Incas was born. In spite of this the object is little-known.
In Maukallakte you can find the perfect stonework, elaborate water system engineering, as well as known to us Ollantaytambo amazing rock cutting technology in industrial scale.
Quite often this object (even the Peruvians themselves) confuse with Maukallaktoy in the province of Espinar, but these are absolutely two different objects which have nothing common.
Part of buildings of this complex is oriented along the azimuth of 45°, which marks the road going in the middle of construction. The other part is oriented according to pentagram along the azimuth of 72/162°. The third one the most northern part is oriented along the azimuth of 5 degrees.
Moray is a city in Peru approximately in 50 km to the north-east from Cusco, near the town of Maras. The city is famous for the large complex of ruins since Incas civilization. Among the ruins are allocated huge circular terraces presumably monuments of terrace farming. The depth of the wells (the largest is about 30 m in deep) creates a temperature difference between the top and the bottom in 15° C. As in many other monuments of Incas culture, in Moray there was a complex system of agricultural irrigation for water supply to the plants.
We can say that Moray is oriented according to hexagon, but the most interesting is that the azimuth to Uluru, in this point is 210.37°, i.e. with the error of 0.37 corresponds to the angle of hexagram 30°/210°.
Ollantaytambo is a huge pyramid -city, archaeological park, a stone fortress at the entrance to the valley of the Urubamba in 97 kilometers from Cusco. This complex was a large public, administrative, religious, military and agricultural center during Tauantinsuё era of Incas Empire. Residential areas surprise with its unusual architectural style. Amaze big multi-faceted walls and trapezoidal doors of local temples and palaces. Till now is not fully understood the purpose of this complex: the fortress, the spiritual complex, or perhaps decorative porch for floriculture.
The upper wall of the complex is oriented according to hexagram along the azimuth of 150°, and the bottom one is oriented according to pentagram along the azimuth of 144°. In this case pentagram, with the error of 0.22° in this place, gives the direction to Stonehenge. In addition Ollantaytambo very precisely lies on the line Great Pyramid - Nazca - Easter Island.
Ruins of Pikillaqta are in30 kilometers to the south from the city of Cusco and historians refer them to the period between 800 and 1100 years when the Incas Empire did not start its development and on these areas lived Huaris culture. In Pikillaqta watch tendencies in construction, then using in numerous buildings of Incas survived up to our days - long straight streets, large stone walls with rectangular lathed stones. In the western part of the ruins preserved buildings with spherical shapes. Some buildings have a terraced form and also scarps by which people could easily climb to the top of the buildings.
Сonstructions in Pikillaqta are oriented according to hexagram, pentagram and nonagon.
Pisak is a city in Peru and ancient Incas fortress, located in 33 km from Cusco. Pisac is located in the Valle Sagrado, the sacred valley of Incas, near the river Urubamba. Center of Pisac consists of two parts. One of them is now the city itself, while the other one, the sublime, is a sacred place. A long staircase leads from the village to the mountain plateau on which are located the ruins of the temple. In the center of former temple there is a sacred stone of Intiuatana, to which according to the beliefs of Incas the sun was tied.
Main constructions of Pisac are oriented and designed according to hexagram.
If center pentagram by a square tower in the south of the complex then along the azimuth of 36° will be the second the same tower. In addition, there are separate structures oriented according to pentagram.
Saiva, Sayhuite is archaeological object in 47 km to the east of Abancay city in province of Abancay, department of Apurimac, Peru. Monument is the center of water worship and is notable for the presence of a stone monolith on which are cut more than 200 geometric and zoomorphic figures. As well as the remains of jagged stones in Kenko.
The main temple of Saiva is oriented along the azimuth of 60° and corresponds to hexagram and the adjacent building along the azimuth of 50° i.e. by the angle of nonagon.
Chunk is nationality in Peru, whose existence is attested by historical sources for the late intermediate period (14-15 centuries.). They feuded with Incas. Lived mainly in the area of ??the modern city of Andahuaylas, Apurimac region. Chunk were divided into three ethnic groups: "Hana-chunk" ("upper", lived in Andahuaylas), "Hurin-chunk" ("lower", lived in Uranmarka) and Vilk or hankouallo (lived in Vilkasuamane). In the war against Incas were allies of the people pokra. The language by which the chunk spoke in ancient times is unknown. Later they used Quechua one, now the descendants of these people speak the language chunk chunk-Quechua it is ayakuchansky dialect of Quechua.
After itself this civilization has left a big shapeless pyramid, the top of which is designated by huge megaliths. Close to the pyramid there is a structure oriented according to pentagram. This structure by its orientation gives the exact direction to the center of pyramid along the azimuth of 108°.
Tambo COLORADO — is a well-preserved complex of adobe buildings of Incas on the coast of Peru. This urban administrative complex of Incas, located in the valley of Pisco, was built during the reign of Inca Pachacutec and is one of not many one which have survived up to the present day. In ancient times the complex served as a refuge for soldiers and officers. The name comes from a word "Tampa" a place of rest and "Colorado" - color, thanks to the color of the walls.
The main buildings of the complex are oriented according to hexagram along the azimuths of 60 and 75 degrees.
The first thing what visitor sees when entering the territory of the complex Tipón is a powerful stream of water pouring from a height of 2 meters in the corner of the man-made walls. At first glance, the construction does not cause much of impression. But when the visitor climbs the stairs to the upper terrace of water temple in Tipón gradually ecstasy takes possession by him from on the kind of what a grand and filigree work has been done by ancient people.
In Tipón there are structures orientated according to nonagon, but the main attractions of the complex are stepped terraces, the orientation of which corresponds to octagon and pentagram.
On the north coast in 33 km to the north of Chiclayo city there is the valley of pyramids Tukums, this is archaeological complex, formed of 26 pyramids almost 40 meters height called "uakas" -temples built of clay bricks. Constructions are located on area in ??220 hectares.
Investigations indicate that the first pyramids were made in 700 AD, initially originated as a center of Lambayeque culture and later turned into important center of territory conquered by Chimu culture later (1375 -1470 AD) and later by the Incas (1470- 1532 AD).
Buildings of pyramids are dated by different periods and confirm that they had functions of administrative, political, social and religious nature. The complex consists of temples, warehouses, patios, rooms and corridors, the walls of which are decorated with relief. The most outstanding pyramid is Huaca Larga, the longest in South America (its length is 700 meters, width is 280 m and a height is 30m).
Time did not spare the pyramids in Tukums, but orientations of objects is still perfectly readable and correspond to regular geometric shape.
Vilcashuamán is situated on a plateau, cape of which rises above cleft where flows a river Vischongo, in a few miles from where it flows into more deep river Pampas. The area above Wilkasy is hilly, treeless pune, where currently lives a tribe of beautiful morochuko riders, about whom say that they are descendants of conquistadors.
No one made excavations in Vilkasuamane and there are a lot of half-buried terraces and palace walls left from Incas.
One span of packed in rows of masonry goes along the bottom part of facade of village church. On the outskirts of the village there is a stone step pyramid the only surviving building of Incas of such kind. It was either a temple of the Sun or elevation on which sat Inca.
The pyramid is oriented along the azimuth of 3°, and the structure next to it along the azimuth of 100° and corresponds to nonagon. The construction near the church is oriented along the azimuth of 60 degrees, what corresponds to the angle of hexagram.