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Publications  THE ALIGNMENTS SYSTEM 17.10.2011. THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN

 
 THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN

 
Igor Smorodin "Strategy" The Second book. Chapter X.
 

THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMANQuite recently in camp of Darwinists the world and calmness reined, it was possible to make species freely one from another, and magnificent evolutionary trees decorated with themselves each textbook in biology. The trouble has come to camp of Darwinists, the big trouble... The chalk with which they earlier with unshakable confidence drew the evolutionary tree on school black boards began to drop out of shivering hands...
 
These questions always excited mankind:
Who are we?
• Whence   have appeared we and where we go?
• Who are our ancestors?
• Whose blood flows in our veins?
• Whose genes conduct the intricate game from generation to generation?

And answers to them were very different in various times. The present chapter of "Strategy" offers new answers to old questions.
 
As to the human vacant once places of missing links (missing link) between the monkey and the human have been filled by three curious fossil beings  Australopithecus ,Pithecanthropus and  Neanderthal men  which consistently occurred one from another and, eventually, evolved in the modern human reasonable (homo sapiens, and in modern scientific terminology even homo sapiens ).Everything has changed literally before our eyes: as a result of progress of scientific knowledge of three curious beings, from the nomenclature of ancestors of the human it was necessary to take away, and on an evolutionary tree in the  interval between the  monkey and the human again gaped ominous emptiness.
 
The first of prospective ancestors of the human had to withdraw the Neanderthal man (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, 1856). Doubts his  relationship with the human have arisen from evolutionists  in the early seventies of the XX-th century, and already then began to take away  him  from textbooks, but powerful proofs were not yet.  At the very beginning of the XXI-st century they have appeared.
 
In 2005 in the scientific collection devoted to the 150 anniversary of opening in the valley of Neanderthal archaic human skeleton two American anthropologists   Jennifer Thompson and Andrew Nelson have placed an article where the scientific comparison analysis of the anthropologies of the modern human skull and the Neanderthal man one has been carried out. Possibility of such comparison has led at once to unexpected results. It was found that rates of achievement of dental and skeletal maturity of Neanderthal man Le Muste were in the sharp contradiction with rates of the modern human ones that testifies about global difference of his development from curve of growth characteristic for the modern human (Thompson J., Nelson A., 2005).
 
If rely on definition of dental age, Neanderthal man Le Mustier has died aged about 15 years. But if to consider separately degree of skeleton development, his biological age does not exceed 10 years. Such disagreement   is extremely atypical for representatives Homo sapiens, including Cro-Magnon men 35 thousand years ago changing the native Neanderthal population of Europe. So strong distinctions can serve in rates of individual development as serious argument in favor of a hypothesis that Cro-Magnons and the European Neanderthal men belonged to different biological species. (A source: «The Neanderthal Adolescent Le Moustier 1. New Aspects, New Results» / H.Ullrich (Ed.). Berliner Beitrage zur Vor - und Fruhgeschichte, N.F., Bd.12. Berlin, 2005, 354 p.)
 
Thompson's conclusions and Nelson were independently confirmed with results of genetic analyses. S. Borinskaya and N.Yankovsky writes in "People and their genes" ": destiny threads" write in the book (the Century 2, 2006)
 
"In 1997 working in Germany a geneticist Svante Paabo   has read  a segment of mtDNA extracted from the remains of the Neanderthal man found more hundred years ago, in 1856, in a valley of Neander near Düsseldorf. It is interesting that on irony of fate the valley's name (Neander Valley) on which the English anthropologist and anatomist William King suggested to name the finding Homo Neanderthalensis, means in translation from Greek      «the new human ».
 
 In summer of 2000 the report appeared about another group of scientists on   research of the second sample Neanderthal mtDNA extracted from the remains of a child found in the cave of Mezmaj in the north Caucasus. In this case remains are precisely dated with radio carbon method, 29 000 years are to them. He/she is a representative of one the last groups of Neanderthal men living on the Earth. Ancient DNA is usually strongly fragmented. Pollution of them with traces of modern DNA which can get on the sample at breath of the researcher or even from laboratory air, yields false results, therefore it is necessary to observe special safety measures. Scientists work with samples in special rooms and in suits reminding space suits to exclude pollution of samples with modern mtDNA. It is considered that accessible for mt DNA analysis under favorable conditions preserves not more than 70 thousand years, and in more ancient samples it is completely destroyed.
Results of molecular-genetic researches testify that Neanderthal men though are near relations of the human, have not brought the contribution to his geno pool (at least, on the maternal line). Both Neanderthal mtDNA have the common features distinguishing them from mtDNA of modern people.  Differences of base sequences of Neanderthal men from mt DNA of the human overstep the bounds of intraspecific variety of Homo sapiens. It means that Neanderthal men represent genetically separate, though closely related to the human branch.
Time of existence of the last general ancestor of the human and the Neanderthal man is estimated by number of distinctions between mtDNA as 500 000 years. According to the paleontologic data, ancestors of Neanderthal men appeared in the Europe about 300 thousand years ago. That is division of the genetic lines leading to the human and the Neanderthal man, should occur before this date, as show dating on mtDNA. "(Completely to read here).

After the Neanderthal man from the number of ancestors of the human it was necessary to remove of the pithecanthropus (apelike, Pithecanthropus, Homo Erectus Dubua, 1891):

"One more" ancestor of the human "has appeared the distant relative»

Scientists have come to the conclusion that so-called "the human Erectus" (Homo Erectus) which was considered before as the ancestor of the modern human, actually lived simultaneously with Homo sapiens. Such conclusion was made as a result of new research of remains Homo Erectus, found on island Java in the Ngandongsky layer near the river Solo.
New dating of fossils- 46 thousand years is the maximum age and the most probable age is 27 thousand years says that Homo erectus co-existed with the modern human.
The group of scientists led by Charles Svisherom III and G.H.Kertisom from the Geochronological centre of Berkeley has established new dating of sedimentations of fossils on Java - Solo (Ngandong) and Sambungmakan by means of two methods of dating, the electron-spin resonance and mass spectrometry of series U.
 
During the period between 1931 and 1933 the group of the Dutch researchers has found remains of twelve human skulls in sedimentations of sandstone of half-meter thickness near the river Solo. Also bones of two human feet were found. On the area in all 50х100 m were found isolated remains more than 25 thousand of vertebrate animals. Between 1976 and 1980 years expedition from University Gadzha Mada, digging out the next plot with  the area 25х16 m, pulled out   two more human skulls, some splinters of human hip bones, various human artefacts and also 1200 more remains of vertebrate animals. They were not whole human skulls but fragments, including a skull without obverse parts and the bottom jaw and also a skull cover.
From the very beginning around fossil of Solos disputes begun. At once it was obvious that subjects of mesolit epoch the found together with skulls (which Kenneth Okli named "azilian culture of processing of the bone", assume the dating of order 10 thousand years ago. It contradicted the standard point of view on Homo Erectus (according to which the age of skulls should be at least 450 thousand years), therefore its supporters declared that human remains and archeological finds are not connected among themselves and were in different layers. This statement, made post factum, contradicts unambiguous attestations of eyewitnesses. Though fossils are really found before occurrence of many modern archaeological methods, but excavation were carried out under the control of the Dutch geological review; a well-known anthropologist Van Kyonigsvald was many times on excavation, saw a skull №VI (Ngandong 7) and a skull №VIII (Ngandong 11) in situ (i.e. did not pull out yet), dug out himself both skulls and described the subjects of culture found together with them. Age of human remains from Sambungmakan, in 40 km. higher was estimated in 1,3 million years; new research has yielded the same result - 27 thousand years. To classify remains from Solo appeared not easier, than to define their age. When they were found Van Kenigsvald assumed that he is «the tropical Neanderthal man".
 
     In 1963 Bernard Kempbell has christened them "Homo sapiens soloensis" ("the human reasonable from Solo"). The Santa-Luca in 1980 named them "Homo Erectus Erectus» ("the human orthograde orthograde"). The other anthropologists have considered that he is «ancient Homo sapiens". Because of obvious similarity with Javanese and Chinese "classical samples Homo Erectus» the majority of modern researchers nevertheless ranks these remains to "Homo Erectus". However the capacity of brain box of fossil people from Solo is more and evolutionists did not keep from a temptation to name them "a transitive link" between Homo Erectus and the modern human.
Nevertheless, it is supposed that the modern human  appeared about 100 thousand years ago, and "transitive" fossils with the age in 27 thousand years  do not entered in this theory in no way. Trying to protect the traditional dating, some scientists assumed that skulls, bones of animals and Mesolithic tools and brought and mixed the river. However group of Svisher underlines that it is impossible to imagine as 12 skulls and other human fossils it could bring on one level in two different places (Ngandong and Sambungmakan). Svisher underlines also high safety of fossils; their fragile structures absolutely are not destroyed as would occur inevitably if the stream brought them. Many modern researchers agree with a hypothesis of Van Kenigsvald that "people of Solo (Ngandong) » fell as victims of cannibalism. He writes:" the considerable quantity of animals bones of all kinds lies in the natural state, and from skeletons of people the very strange selection of fragments obviously not natural origin remained. "All skulls have, without exception, broken obverse bones, and all have broken the skull basis except two ones. Van Kenigsvald names them" trophy skulls ", drawing the analogy with modern" hunters for heads ", which eat the brain of the won opponent to capture with his mind and bravery. Skulls should mark borders of the tribe territory. Even in our times some tribes of New Guinea mark borders of the hunting grounds in a similar way. Probably, they consider that the spirit living in the skull helps to protect their territory from enemies."
 
Chris Stinger from the London Museum of Natural history writes: "If dating is true, we see three different species, existing simultaneously" (meaning Homo Erectus, the modern human and the Neanderthal man whom the majority of anthropologists consider as subspecies Homo sapiens). (The Original here)

Conclusions of Svisher and Curtis (Swisher III, Curtis, 2000) were supported with the Indonesian and Japanese scientists:

«The Pithecanthropus was not the ancestor of the human»
After carrying out of careful researches of  the Pithecanthropus skull the group of Japanese and Indonesian scientists has concluded that the type of  primitive  hominids   to which the Pithecanthropus reckons, is not a link of  the human evolution   informs "Independent" (translation  is  into a site "InoPressa").
 
For the first time the skull of the pithecanthropus was found by anthropologist Ezhenom Dubo on Java Island in 1891. The age of this skull is 700 thousand years. According to the opinion of majority of scientists, results of DNA studying prove that such type’s hominids as the Peking human, Pithecanthropus and the Neanderthal man, make a separate branch which did not gain the development in the modern human. But some experts nevertheless continue to prove that the Javanese human was the far ancestor of modern natives of Australia.
 
Data of joint researches carried out by collaborators of the National museum of science, by scientists of Tokyo University and their Indonesian colleagues, has completely denied this statement. As declared Hisao Baba, the head of anthropology department of the National museum of science and the head of research group, "last results of researches only confirm the theory of monogenesis".
 
According to the standard theory of anthropology, the prototype of the modern human  appeared in Africa approximately 200 thousand years ago and  started to settle  all over the world about 50-100 thousand years ago.  Hisao Baba and members of his group have found recently in the central district of Java one more fossilized skull of the Pithecanthropus (they name him as "the Javanese human"). During the research the careful analysis of the last finding and two found before skulls was carried out. The analysis which was carried out with use of computer tomography with high accuracy, revealed the main differences of Pithecanthropus bone fabric and modern people one. In particular, scientists found essential distinctions in structure of the skull in eye hollows area and in maxillary junctions. Scientists are convinced that evolution of the Javanese human in type of the modern human was hardly possible. Experts believe that the Pithecanthropus has existed about one million years, and has disappeared some ten thousand years ago, just when anthropological type of the modern human started to extend. Results of the last researches were published in the American journal "Science". (The Original here)
 
After the exclusion of the Neanderthal man and the Pithecanthropus in the arsenal of Darwinists remained one Australopithecus (Australopithecus, the southern monkey, Dart, 1925). However the opinion that Australopithecus is the ancestor of the human, is divided by not all members of scientific community, and many scientists continue to consider him as variety of the monkey up till nowhere is what known scientists M.Kremo and R.Thompson write, for example:
 
But even after the majority of scientists have recognized in him hominid and the immediate ancestor of the human, some experts remained in opposition to this idea. Louis Liky asserted that Australopithecus had represented himself  as the very early and apelike branch from the basic tree of human evolution. Later the same position took his son Richard. At the very beginning of 1950th year’s Sir Solli Tsukerman (Solly Zuckerman) published the data of wide biometric researches proving that Australopithecus was not a humanoid as it draw wishing to achieve a place for him in family tree of Homo sapiens.
 
From the end 1960 and till 1990th years Charles Oxnard with the new force led an attack on   which begun Tsukerman. For this purpose he used the method of the multiple-choice statistical analysis. By his opinion, «it is improbable that someone from representatives of Australopithecus could have the phylogenetic link with Homo family ». Oksnard has come to the conclusion that the brain, teeth and skull of Australopithecus resembled more the monkey's ones His shoulder-blade is adapted for that he could hang and climb up the trees. A hand is the same, as orangutan's one. Pelvic bones are adapted for movement on four limbs and for realization of acrobatic exercises. The same is possible to tell concerning femur and anklebone structure.
 
«The analysis of the data accessible to us, - Charles Oxnard wrote in 1975, suggests that the animal had medium height, freely felt itself on the trees:  was capable to climb, to realize acrobatic exercises and, probably, to hang on forward limbs. (M.Kremo and R.Thompson" Unknown history of mankind ", 1994).

Thus, if to recognize of Australopithecus for southern monkey (this point of view shares one of leading anthropologists Ralf van Kyonigsvald which considers Australopithecus as a deadlock branch of evolution), whom it, strictly speaking, is by its   name, the situation with a missing link between the monkey and the human is even worse today, than in times of Darwin then at least there was a Neanderthal man... If to continue searches of the general ancestor of anthropoids and the human it is impossible in no way to avoid that fact that on the way of transformation of the monkey to the human there is such formidable obstacle as the chromosomal barrier. It well-known that all representatives of hominidae family have 24 chromosomes, except for homo which have   only 23 chromosomes.
 
That is from Darwinism positions it is not difficult to admit the origin of anthropoids from each other or from the general ancestor but how to be with the human?
 
Tom cat and cat which have   38 chromosomes in the combination   will give the birth to the kitten which will be having obligatory 38 chromosomes too.  The dog and the bitch which have 78 chromosomes in the combination will give the birth to the puppy with 78 chromosomes etc., etc. The Anthropoid always will generate the monkey with 24 chromosomes (48 chromosomes in diploid combination) and will never give the birth to the human with 23 chromosomes (46 in diploid combination). Such are genetics laws.
 
Paradox of the situation is that the newest data of genetics specify that modern hominids (orangutan, gorilla and chimpanzee) are in closer relationship with the human, than his prospective fossil ancestors. After the international project "Genome of the human" was finished in 2001 at once was begun the project "Genome of a chimpanzee" which, in its turn, was finished in 2005. After that the comparative analysis of the human, chimpanzee, gorilla and the orangutan genomes was carried out with the purpose to find out which of these three hominid are closer to the human one in the genetic relation.
 
The analysis has yielded following results:
 
Chromosomes 6, 13, 19, 21, 22 and Х are identical for all four species.
Chromosomes 3, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20 and Y look identical for three of four species gorillas, chimpanzee and the human.
Chromosomes 1, 2А, 2Б, 5, 7-10, 12, 16 are identical for two species   chimpanzee and the human.
Chromosomes 4 and 17 differ for all four species.
 
The comparative genetic analysis the human and the chimpanzee genomes have shown that difference genome of the human from genome of the chimpanzee is, by different estimations, within 1-2 %! Already this fact clearly shows that on the way of transformation of the chimpanzee to the human does not lie anything, except a chromosomal barrier.
 
Besides the eloquent statistics the amazing fact was opened: 2nd chromosome of the human was formed by means of junction of two chromosomes (2А and 2Б) of chimpanzee. Here is what Russian Wikipedia in the article "2nd chromosome of the human" writes about it:

Proofs of junction are based on following facts:
The chromosome of the human corresponds to two chromosomes of monkeys. The nearest human relative, pygmy chimpanzee has almost identical to being 2nd chromosome of the human sequences of DNA, but they are located on two separate chromosomes. The same is true and for more distant relatives:  gorilla and orangutan.
 
On the chromosome of the human there are rudimentary centromeres. Usually the chromosome has only one centromere, but on a long shoulder of 2nd chromosome the rests of the second are observed. Besides on the chromosome of the human there are rudimentary telomeres. Usually telomeres are only on the chromosome ends, but the sequences of nucleotides characteristic for telomeres, are observed also in the middle of 2nd chromosome.

2nd chromosome, thus, represents itself the convincing proof in favor of existence of the general ancestor of people and other monkeys.
In this citation authors of Wikipedia have committed two errors.
• The first: yes, 2nd chromosome of the human is a result of two chromosomes junction of chimpanzee but not gorilla and not the orangutan. From here, neither orangutan, nor gorilla cannot be ancestors of the human.
 • the second: 2nd chromosome, thus, represents itself not  convincing proof in favor of existence of the general ancestor of people and other monkeys, but  it is only the proof in favor of  origin of the human from  chimpanzee.
 
In English article of Wikipedia "Chimpanzee Genome Project" there is the additional information which is throwing light upon the structure of 2nd human chromosome (I give the English text to avoid discrepancies in translation):

The results of the chimpanzee genome project suggest that when ancestral chromosomes 2A and 2B fused to produce human chromosome 2, no genes were lost from the fused ends of 2A and 2B. At the site of fusion, there are approximately 150,000 base pairs of sequence not found in chimpanzee chromosomes 2A and 2B. Additional linked copies of the PGML/FOXD/CBWD genes exist elsewhere in the human genome, particularly near the p end of chromosome 9. This suggests that a copy of these genes may have been added to the end of the ancestral 2A or 2B prior to the fusion event. It remains to be determined if these inserted genes confer a selective advantage.
 
So, proceeding from this additional information, it is possible to tell that 2nd chromosome of the human is not exact copy of two chromosomes of chimpanzee (2А and 2Б). In the  place of junction  of  chimpanzee two chromosomes  in the  interval between the ends telomeres  there is the genetic insert consisting of genes group  with  size in 150 000 nitrogenous bases. The group of genes which form the genetic insert located between the ends of telomeres of chimpanzee chromosomes 2А and 2Б does not occur more anywhere in genome of chimpanzee though they occur in the other chromosomes of the human. It is possible to assume that these genes were introduced in the gene of chimpanzee from the outside and they are responsible for transformation of chimpanzee into the human.
 
But only how could it occur? If to admit that junction of two chromosomes happened as a result of natural mutation, the individual who would be the carrier of given mutation could not have posterity whereas it would be compelled to couple with the individuals having 24 chromosomes and the normal process of fertilization would be impossible.
 
Theoretically it is possible to admit that the similar mutation could occur simultaneously for two individuals of the opposite sex which as a result of pairing could generate a line of our ancestors with 23 chromosomes. However the probability of such event is the smallest.
If we take into consideration that as  a result of such casual natural mutation  was obtained  not any freak as it occurs in overwhelming majority of cases but Reasonable  human (Homo Sapiens ) we should  in general  consider such probability aspiring to zero. Proceeding from all aforesaid it is possible to do one  only conclusion: combination of  two chromosomes, implantation of another's genes  and also all other corrections of chimpanzees genome  were  made with an artificial  method of gene engineering  consequently purposeful problem of which essentially new species- the Reasonable human (Homo Sapiens ) has been  created.
 
In such case by whom, when and where it has been made? The only scientific theory where answers to these questions are given with deep arguments is contained in 10 books of a series "Chronicle of the Earth" of Zachary Sitchin. Consequently the regular and laborious analysis of Semitic Akkadians, Babylon and Hittite mythology Sitchin gives the following answer to the questions put above: the reasonable human has been created as a product of gene engineering of Anunnakus in Southern Africa 40 spheres later after the first landing of Anunnakus on our planet. 445 000 years ago - (40х3600=144 000 years) =301 000 years ago.
 
Without recognizing the fact of artificial origin of the human, the official academic science gives answers similar to Sitchin's concerning the place and the time of reasonable human origin.

In 1987 there was "quiet revolution" in paleoanthropology. It was connected with issue of work Cann R. L., Stoneking, M. And Wilson, A. C. (1987) "Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution". After that the hypothesis about monocentric the African and rather recent origin of the human became as dominating academic theory. Here are extracts from Galina Muravnik's article "Paradox of the human: a new view on an old problem, chapter "Mitochondrial Eve":

"In eighties, as one of participants of these events expressed «silent revolution "in anthropology occurred. Have appeared data which radically transformed the former representations about early stages of human evolution. The speech is about outstanding discoveries of the young science paleogenetics (sometimes it is named a molecular paleontology). It has appeared that in the human himself or more exactly in his genotype which is complex of all organism genes it is possible to find traces of evolutionary history of species. For the first time genes have appeared in a role of reliable historical documents, with that only difference that writing in them is made not with ink but with chemical components of DNA molecule. In a word, genetics have learnt to take the information in literal sense from» terrestrial dust "of the hardened rests which belonged to rather ancient beings.
 
About 10 years ago in the journal "Nature" appeared Allan K.Wilson's article, professors of the Californian university in Berkeley in which he asserted that all mankind has occurred from one woman once living in Africa which descendants have occupied other continents, having generated all racial variety of mankind. Detailed results of these researches have been published in 1992 in authoritative journal "Science". It is excessively to speak what the reaction was. A.Wilson writes that in search of the data about evolution of the human paleogenetics were involved in dispute with paleontologists which the first, now it is possible to recognize, have excellent won.
 
A.Wilson's group has developed two base concepts in which channel took place researches. As the comparative analysis of fibers has shown in molecular evolution neutral mutations collect with constant speed is first idea. Speed of genes change at the expense of dot neutral mutations is constant with time; therefore it can be used as original "an evolutionary chronometer", allowing dating origin the given branch from the general trunk. It is the second idea. As a result all is reduced to a simple arithmetic problem in which, knowing speed of movement and the way, it is necessary to define time.
 
In the end of eighties were began comparatively- genetic researches. For the analysis A.Wilson has selected not nuclear DNA but DNA of mitochondrion one of organellas cell. The matter is that mitochondrial  DNA (mtDNA) is a small ring molecule in the size of 16.600 pairs of nucleotides containing 37 genes.  To mutate cannot more than 2 %, from them as the majority of genes are vital necessary. For the comparison: nuclear DNA of the human contains of the order of 60 thousand genes (according to the latest data about 30-35 thousand genes) that makes about 3, 2 billion of nucleotidic pairs.

However not only the modest sizes of mtDNA have defined a choice. Much more is important another. It is known that mitochondrions, unlike others organellas cell are inherited exclusively from female line. When junction of spermatozoon and ovum occur   in the course of fertilization, mitochondrions of sperm collapse in cytoplasm of ovum.   Thus the germ obtains the mitochondrions from mother, from its ovum. MtDNA of the father during germ formation  however "leaves in sawdust" as Wilson writes in one of his articles,
 
This circumstance allows watching for the individual ancestors   on maternal line. Judge Youself: each of us has received mitochondrions from your mother, it has received from its and that has received from it’s … and so on. The relationship line the genetic genealogy is built, allowing glancing in rather remote past. Besides, mtDNA, unlike nuclear does not enter the recombination process, therefore it accumulates neutral mutations, as it was earlier told, with constant speed. It means that mtDNA behaves, as clocks which named "mitochondrious clocks".
 
Having realized the presence of any inhabitant of the Earth of this surprising chronometer A.Wilson’s group started the analysis of the human genealogy. Samples of 182 various types of medina were collected, received from 241 individuals where representatives of 42 nationalities of all races entered. Two sites of mtDNA in which actively appeared mutations were investigated. It is clear that younger nations will be genetically more homogeneous, and more ancient should have significant   spectrum of the mutations which collected for more long time of existence on the Earth.
 
Having carried out the comparative analysis of mtDNA has .Wilson constructed a family tree which accurately testified about presence of the greatest differentiation of mitochondrial genes in Africa? Moreover, all six-milliard modern mankind as has shown this research, leads its origin from one woman, once living in east Africa. The author of discovering which was world sensation, became "godfather" of our progenitress has naming her «mitochondrial Eve".
 
However A.Wilson, having found the place which is "cradle" of mankind, has gone further. Knowing speed of mutation   he could define and approximate time when "Eve" has appeared on the Earth.
 
THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN"Mitochondrial clocks» have shown that she lived approximately 140 000 - 290 000 years ago. »As we see, the top date of life" of mitochondrial Eve «according to Wilson "almost coincides with dating of the first people creation «according to Sitchin ".
 
September issue   2008 of journal Journal of Human Evolution is entirely devoted to results  of the unique archeological findings  which are  made around settlement Kibish on the river bank Omo in southern Ethiopia. This location was revealed in 1967 with expedition of Kenyan national museums (The National Museums of Kenya, NMK) under the leadership of Richard Leakey, son of Luis Leakey. At the same time the main findings, two human skulls named Omo I and Omo II have been made also. These bones with age of 195 000 years are the most ancient skeletal rests of modern type people from known to science. According to my data are 282 000 years to the modern human.
 
Since I have familiarized with the theory of Sitchin, I was tormented constantly with one question: which hominid Anunnaku took as base model for creation of the human? Here Sitchin, for example, writes:
 
"However the general« the life seed »has made manipulation with genes possible, Enki exactly has found out it and has offered.  The creation necessary to us already exists, he has declared, it is necessary to note it (with genetic) seal of Anunnaku. It is necessary to assume that by that time Anunnaku   have deciphered the genome of Nibiru planet inhabitants and could decipher the genome of terrestrial hominid in the same way as it is done by modern scientists." (Zachary Sitchin, "Chronicles of the Earth", №6, "the Space code. Gene engineering of gods.")
 
I represent that I have found the answer to this question. And though it is already clear from previous statement   that it is chimpanzee, actually it is not absolutely so.
 
Now the   chimpanzee family is subdivided into two species: ordinary chimpanzee and dwarfish chimpanzee.  The dwarfish chimpanzee (it is not less in growth ordinary one but a little   frailer) has own name: pygmy chimpanzee (bonobo).  The pygmy chimpanzees live in rainforests of the Central Africa on small territory between Congos and Lualaba rivers.  Numbers of them is   about 10 thousand individuals. Bonobo has been described as species only in 1929, and only in the seventies of XX-th century scientists have paid steadfast attention to it. It became gradually clear, that exactly bonobo   stands in the evolutionary relation    closer to the human from all fauna. Here is the basic information about features of bonobo’s behavior from the article of Wikipedia devoted to it:
 
Features of behavior:
 
Bonobo monkeys  do not have features  of the  ordinary chimpanzee behavior  they do not have joint hunting, the  frequent application of aggression for clearing-up of relations and primitive wars, they do not train to  sign language though in bondage bonobo with easy operate with various subjects. Distinctive feature of bonobo is that the female is at the head of community. Females often show dominance in relation to males, but it occurs only in those specific cases when business concerns sex and food.
 
Sexual activity of bonobo female is not connected in due course with heat (of ovule periodic maturing). Bonobo are engaged with pair female genital sex when two females rub each other genitals for decrease of interhumanal pressure. In the same way come to mutual satisfaction and pairs of bonobo males. Between all members of community and in any combinations the high frequency of sexual contacts is observed. Any conflict situation in the society is authorized with not fighting but with sex. Thus bonobo practically has no taboo: the male can have sex with the female, with other male, with children of both sexes. The same concerns and females. Females have sex with the cub, mother with the son, but with age restriction:  it should be not more than 6th years.
At the meeting with other band on the boundary territory males enter dialogue and females enter in sexual contacts with males of another's band. Nevertheless the level of intergroup aggression is high enough: approximately half of the meetings come to the end with aggression, and more often females attack males that never happens with ordinary chimpanzee. Meanwhile, however, it is not fixed any confirmed case of intraspecific murder which among ordinary chimpanzee is rather spread.
 
The basic component of their food is fruit, sometimes grassy plants, invertebrates and meat of other animals. Bonobo as well as ordinary chimpanzees can catch monkeys with dexterity but do not kill and do not eat them. They play for hours with cubs of monkeys and liberate them.
 
Despite of high frequency of sexual contacts, reproduction level in their populations is insignificant. The female gives birth to one cub with the interval in 5-6 years. Females become половозрелыми by 13-14 years. Lifetime of bonobo is unknown (about 50 years - the author).
Bonobo constantly, even during meal, communicate among themselves by means of the system of sounds which still is not deciphered. Their brain is developed enough to perceive the other sign systems. In bondage the human-experimenter allows to remember some tens signs and their sound equivalent. Further the primate remembers different commands of this language and, at last, at pronouncing new ones  never heard  earlier, commands carries out any actions: « Soap a ball "," Take out from the  room X ». Moreover, the case is described when the female trained in the sign language itself has trained the cub instead of the human-experimenter. In the experiment carried out with Fund of research the big anthropoids (USA), the well-known male Kanzi managed to teach to understand on hearing about 3000 English words and actively to use more than 500 words by means of the keyboard with geometrical signs. It allows saying about bonobo as about the most intellectual species of primacies that, of course, approaches it to the human.
Bonobos are   the most close to the human from existing animals nowadays; meanwhile bonobo shows more peculiar to the human behavioral lines than ordinary chimpanzees. Some scientists in this connection demand to reconsider the family tree. Besides, the complex of bonobo genes coincides with one of the human genes   on 98 %. Blood of bonobo can be poured to the human without any preliminary processing whereas it is necessary to delete antibodies from the blood of other chimpanzees."
 
So, we summarise all already known facts which specify that bonobo is the direct and immediate ancestor of the human, i.e. between it and the human already there are no intermediate links:
 
 Bonobo has the highest I.Q. in all fauna.
• From all primacies the social behavior of bonobo most of all reminds social behavior of people.
• From all primacies only bonobo possesses rudiments of the second signal system - speech communications.
• From all primacies bonobo are capable to master in the greatest degree with human language and even independently train to it of its cubs.
. Genome of bonobo and genome of the human are identical on 98-99 %!!! It is already proved that a genome of bonobo has fewer divergences with genome of the human, than a genome of ordinary. Chimpanzee.
• 2nd chromosome of the human is the exact copy of two conjugated chromosomes 2А and 2Б of bonobo except for heterogeneous genetic insert between chromosomes telomeres 2А and 2Б that can be the product of genic engineering.
• Blood of bonobo can be poured to the human without any preliminary processing whereas it is necessary to delete antibodies from blood of ordinary chimpanzee. Bonobo as well as the human, has 4 blood types according to the system AVO. It can indicate on that the blood has not been touched with process of genic engineering in no way and the human has got it in the inheritance from bonobo in the invariable kind. Here is really: "We are with you the same blood - you and I!"
 
And the last proof:
 
Direct evidence for the Homo-Pan clade.
Wimmer R, Kirsch S, Rappold GA, Schempp W., Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, University of Freiburg, Germany.
 
For a long time, the evolutionary relationship between human and African apes, the ' trichotomy problem ', has been debated with strong differences in opinion and interpretation. Statistical analyses of different molecular DNA data sets have been carried out and have primarily supported a Homo-Pan clade. An alternative way to address this question is by the comparison of evolutionarily relevant chromosomal breakpoints. Here, we made use of a P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)/bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig spanning approximately 2.8 Mb on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, to comparatively map individual PAC clones to chromosomes from great apes, gibbons, and two species of Old World monkeys by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. During our search for evolutionary breakpoints on the Y chromosome, it transpired that a transposition of an approximately 100-kb DNA fragment from chromosome 1 onto the Y chromosome must have occurred in a common ancestor of human, chimpanzee and bonobo. Only the Y chromosomes of these three species contain the chromosome-1-derived fragment; it could not be detected on the Y chromosomes of gorillas or the other primates examined. Thus, this shared derived (synapomorphic) trait provides clear evidence for a Homo-Pan clade independent of DNA sequence analysis.
 
THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMANIf  recognize correctness of stated above hypothesis become clear many phenomena which did not receive adequate explanations in science till now. For example, preceding from features of social and sexual behavior of bonobo it is possible to explain such phenomena as homosexuality and pedophilia in the modern human society and matriarchy in primitive. The African pygmies which according  to the data of paleogenetics  separated out one of the first from originally homogeneous genetic population of the first people in south-east Africa, have similar with bonobo  growth (90-120 sm  for adult individuals of bonobo  and 140-150 sm for  adult pygmies) and the matriarchal social organization. The name of the African tribe of Zulu (language - Zulu), probably, occurs from two Sumeric words: LuLu (mixed human) and AbZu (the place of ancient gold mines in southern Africa). From here ZuLu is a human from gold mines or, simply, the miner. Bushmen which along with pygmies are one of the most ancient people of southern Africa, use as food "bushman rice" - larvae of ants. But it is also one of the favorite delicacies of bonobo.
 
Why Anunnaku have created people with 23 chromosomes instead of 24 combined two chromosomes of bonobo into one .Probably because they had 23 chromosomes they and they wanted to eliminate the chromosomal barrier between them and the future people. We know that further Anunnaku will be crossed to people, generating generations of demigods.

"When people have started too multiplied on the earth and daughters were born from them then sons of God have seen human daughters that they are beautiful, and took [them] to themselves as wives which who has selected." (The (Book of) Genesis6:1-2).

The Hebrew word "Nephilim» actually also means the following generation of demigods when Anunnaku have found possible to enter sexual contacts with terrestrial women.

In  that time there were on the earth giants [Nephilim], especially since then as sons of God  began to enter the  human daughters  and they began to bear  them : these are strong, since ancient times nice people" ( Book of) Genesis 6:4).
 
As whole the version   of the human origin stated above does not contradict bible (creationistic). We will take that place from the Bible where it is told about the human origin. 
 
"God also has told: we will create the human on our image and on our similarity, and let them to rule over sea, fishes and over heavenly birds, both over cattle, and over all the Earth and over all reptiles   creeping on   the ground.  And God has created the human by his image also by image of God has created him; the man and the woman has created them" (Book of) Genesis 1:26-27).
 
In the given Russian Synod translation the interpreter has translated Hebrew word "Elohim» as God. However actually the word "Elohim" is plural and is precisely translated as "gods". Thus all contradictions are eliminated. Sumeric Anunnaku and Hebrew Elohim are by essence the same: gods from flesh and blood. They have created people by own image and similarity. And is valid we are very similar to Anunnaku whose images can be seen on ancient tablets and bas-reliefs. Only their growth is small.   But are guilty bonobo they are absolutely small.
 
It is paradoxically that the version stated above does not contradict as well Darwinian (evolutionary) theory of the human origin.   The human has really occurred from the monkey. We even name a concrete monkey bonobo. But how, it is already other question.
 
It would seem it would be possible to put a dot. We have distributed the earrings to all sisters and would seem that can calm down from thought that the secret of the human origin at last is solved. But far from it. The facts and hypotheses which will be stated in the second part of present chapter, will force us to put into question that is represented such authentic.
 
So we pass to the second part.
 
In 1960 the English biologist, the professor of Oxford, sir Alister Hardy has published an article in the journal "New Scientist" (17 March, 1960) under the title "Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?" In it Hardy has stated a hypothesis of the human origin from the monkey which had the semiterrestrial-semiwater way of life. In scientific circles this hypothesis has received name Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). Hardy has paid attention to three circumstances which distinguish the human from any higher primacies:
 
1. The human is the excellent swimmer unlike any higher primacies which in panic are afraid of water.
2. The human possesses the congenital swimming reflex so if to learn him begin to swim earlier, than to go.
3.
If the thermoregulation function is carried out with   dense hair cover for higher primacies, for   the human who practically does not have hair cover   there is   considerable hypodermic fatty layer   which also carries out the function of thermoregulation for such water animals as whales, dolphins, polar bears, etc. On the land hypodermic fatty layer cannot carry out function of protection against overcooling and consequently, from the point of view of the evolutionary theory, its presence at the human is inexplicable (Hardy, 1960)
 
In spite of the fact that Alister Hardy's hypothesis has not met support in scientific community, English writer Elaine Morgan has devoted all her life to development and propagation of this hypothesis. She wrote five books on this theme:
• The Aquatic Ape, 1982, Stein AND Day Pub, ISBN 0-285-62509-8
• The Scars of Evolution, 1990, Souvenir Press, ISBN 0-285-62996-4
• The Descent of the Child: Human Evolution from a New Perspective, 1995, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509895-1
• The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis, 1997, Souvenir Press, ISBN 0-285-63377-5
• The Naked Darwinist, 2008, Eildon Press, ISBN 0-9525620-30
 
Gradually a row of signs which distinguish the human from primacies has been allocated:
 
4. The lowered throat." We, people are unique among land mammal that we breathe with equal ease both nose and mouth. In similar way our inability to breathe and drink simultaneously is unique. The reason of it is in specific feature which was named «the lowered throat». All mammals if do not consider of ourselves have the separate channel connecting nose with lungs, a windpipe. They have also one more channel, the gullet which connects the mouth with the stomach. These two channels remain divided. Therefore such animals can drink and breathe simultaneously. It occurs because of mouth and nose is divided with the roof of mouth forward part of which forms the bone arch of mouth. The back part consists of soft tissue. At all overland mammals, if do not consider the human, windpipe passes through the roof of mouth in the form of ring obturator muscle- sphincter. Thus the ordinary windpipe settles down over mouth cavity and is connected only with nose. However, under certain conditions, sphincter can relax and allow the top part of windpipe - throats - to fall to mouth. Meanwhile, air from lungs can either be pushed out or be involved.
 
Just this feature allows, for example, for dog to bark. Upon termination of barking windpipe again rises upwards and sphincter is compressed, thereby again establishing separateness of channels for air and for food. However the human’s windpipe does not connect with mouth top but is in gullet under tongue root. This position also is called as "the lowered throat». We have no sphincter in gullet which would divide windpipe and esophagus.   On the contrary, the back part of gullet is opened that does possible entering both air and food to lungs, or to gullet. Such organization, certainly, is interfaced with potential risk. It is projective oversight in natural selection. It transforms the swallowing into difficult action, so far as we should care of that the food or drink got to gullet, instead of to windpipe. If by any reason because of illnesses, accident or intoxication control over this process lose it is easy to choke, for example, with own emetic masses. And what to speak, the asthma as a result of casual hit   of food to windpipe - is widespread enough cause of people death
 
Which any other land mammals do not have lowered throat, however there are other mammals for whom it there is.  Though they are only such mammals which live in the sea or lakes, namely such mammals, as seals, whales, dugongs and sea lions. All these animals are those which should remain under the water for a long time.
 
While to   land inhabitants the lowered throat does not bring any advantage, it gives distinct advantage to water inhabitants having possibility to breathe through the mouth, the animal is capable to inhale or exhale considerable volume of air for a short time. This is very important advantage in conditions when the animal should come up on some time before immersing. It also allows to animal to inhale very slowly at full conscious control. (Michael Bajdzhent: "Forbidden archaeology")
 
5. Breath control. If for other land mammals breath is such uncontrollable process, as well as pulsation of their heart the human is capable to carry out conscious control over breath. Just this ability has given the chance to develop to such unique quality of the human as speech. This ability underlies of various technicians of Indian yoga, and also possibility of conscious delay of breath -apnoea.  All   modern free diving is based on apnoea.
 
6. Diving reflex of mammals. The first time when you will detain the breath and will try to dive more deeply, you quickly will feel the  typical signal - the intense, burning feeling in your breast which your mind interprets as "shout about air". As a mammal breathing with  air you start to panic, as soon  you understand that typical conditions of breath were  broken. As soon as you will learn to ignore  terrestrial mammal and especially when you slide the following 30 foots, the feeling of compressing  your breast will disappear and diving reflex of mammals
will wake up in your.
In what is it shown:
Bradycardia or slowdown of heartbeat frequency for energy storage;
Vasoconstriction to increase blood supply of lungs;
Decrease peripheral blood circulations to direct blood only to the most important organs.
Increase of quantity of red blood little bodies to take and transfer more oxygen;
Thorax filling when blood plasma protects lungs and a thorax from damage with elevated pressure.
 
The Russian ophthalmologist Muldashev writes in the book "From whom have we occurred?":

 
THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN"Defects of development of facial skull, for example"harelip"(upper lip crevice) or" the wolf mouth "(crevice of the top gullet) are formed as a result of development delay in early stage embryogenesis, when two half of bones of facial skull have not grown together yet and have been divided with crevice. From here, taking account that embryonic development repeats evolutionary development of the human on the Earth, it is possible to conclude that ancient people had bones of facial skull, not completely accrete on the centre.
 
Who from ancient people could have the central crevice on the face? Considering that the crevice between bones of facial skull is one of the earliest signs, and that the bones in the process of evolution have appeared for the first time at Lemurian people (E. P.Blavatskaya." The secret doctrine ", 1937, т.2, с.208), it is possible to assume that Lemurian people had crevice on upper lip and the top gullet.
Confirmation of it is that on the Tibetan temples together with unusual eyes the helicoids nose is represented, which cut falls downwards (consider, to  upper lip area) to  oral aperture. The vertical crevice connecting oral and nasal apertures, carried out at Lemurian people the certain, important function for semi water way of life. On each side from the vertical crevice, there, where   the modern human has genyantrum Lemurian people had small gills which helped to enrich blood with oxygen and promoted to longer stay under the water. The water which is sucked in with mouth was passed through these gills and left through the vertical crevice. Probably, Lemurian people   had also the big thorax for preservation in lungs the stock of air during stay under water. Thus, Lemurian people   had combined elements of the adaptation to water    «fish" and "mammal» And genyantrum of modern people are rudiments of branchiate formations Lemurian people V.G.Gafarov considers   "(Muldashev, 1999)
 
Certainly, it is possible to consider hypotheses of Muldashev as the pure fantasy, but here are conclusions of modern academic science:
 
"The British scientists have found brilliant confirmation   that very far ancestors of the human floated on open spaces of the World Ocean and had gills. According to results of the scientific research carried out in Royal college of London, our parathyroid glands are modified gills of ancient fish-shaped for they carry out the same functions.
 
Professor Anthony Graham and Doctor Masataka Okabe have come to conclusion that during that epoch when fish-shaped left for the land and have got tetradactyl limbs, gills have not died off as superfluous. Parathyroid glands of modern animals and the human develop parathyroid hormone.  It strengthens leaving of calcium from bones in blood and stimulates leaving of calcium and phosphates with kidneys. Fishes have no these glands but their role is carried out with gills which choose calcium from water.
 
"Parathyroid glands of tetrapods (ancient amphibious) and gills of fishes promote to regulation of calcium level. It is reasonable to assume that these glands have appeared as a result of gills transformation of the animals who replaced the water environment on the land", - professor Grehem has declared in this connection "(Graham, Okabe, 2004)
 
Ichthyosis  is the illness of  skin characterized with  formation of lamelliform  plates which give  to body  surface the  kind of  fish scales or  snakeskin. Thus, functional activity of the human's thyroid gland adrenal glands and sexual glands decreases. It is marked also evertion of eyelids   (ectropion) to which the photophobia quite often accompanies.   Mental backwardness epilepsy, anomalies of teeth and a skeleton are possible.  Ichthyosis is incurable, by means of therapy it is possible to reach only of temporal improvement. However, many scientists consider ichthyosis not as incurable illness-anomaly, but as the direct proof of that people are natives of the sea.
 
As many scientists consider now traces of the sea origin of the human are shown in human anomalies. In their opinion some people are born so-called man-fish. This deviation is called «sirenomelia». Thus legs of the baby grow together and feet form «the fish tail», as for sea sirens. On the average the nature creates"one"mermaid"on 60 thousand pregnancies . So, in 1991 news agencies  informed about birth in Peru a  kid which all body was covered with  scales, and  the mouth without lips gave him  more  similarity with  fish. He did not have auricles and instead of nose two holes gaped. The last case of children birth has to with « the fish pathology » occurred in 1998 on Philippines. The mother has given birth to three children which can be under the water more than ten minutes thanks to gills.
 
The French scientists assure that hiccups are neither more no less than habit-rudiment, remained to us as inheritance from branchiate breath. The human hiccups because of convulsive reductions of the muscles used for inhalation of air what does not need at all for him. Scientists believe that the hiccups are connected with sudden uncontrollable inclusions of nervous centers of the brain which once was responsible for movement of human's gills.
 
We cannot support a hypothesis of human’s origin from water monkey as the facts undeniably prove that the direct ancestor of the human was bonobo. However another number of the facts so incontestably proves that in the human's genome besides genes of  bonobo and Annunaku there are someone’s genes, genes of beings which had water or semi water way of life.
 
Besides, there is Rhesus factor problem. The Rhesus factor is an antigene (protein) which is on the surface of red blood little bodies (erythrocytes). It was found in 1919 г in blood of macaques-rhesus monkeys   and later and in people. About 85 % of Europeans (99 % of Indians and Asians) have a Rhesus factor and accordingly are Rhesus -positive. The others of 15 % (7 % of Africans) which have no it are Rhesus-negative. Bonobo also as well as people have 4 blood types and a positive Rhesus factor. Then whence the part of people had a negative Rhesus factor?
 
And who "has brought" in the human's genome   aquagenes?
 
The author of the article is Igor Smorodin.
  
 
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