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Publications  THE ALIGNMENTS SYSTEM 17.03.2016. ANCIENT NAVIGATION COMPLEXES. NORTH AMERICA 2.

ANCIENT NAVIGATION COMPLEXES. NORTH AMERICA 2.

AFRICA 1   AFRICA 2   ASIA 1   ASIA 2   ЕВРОПА    NORTH AMERICA 1    NORTH AMERICA 2    SOUTH AMERICA   OCEANIA AND ISLANDS

 

In this part, we will continue to study the orientation of ancient structures in North America. On all the images at the top is always North.

MITLA


In the valley Tlakolula in 38 kilometers to south-east of the Mexican city Oaxaca, at a height of 1480 m  from under a thick layer of earth, archaeologists unearthed the ruins of Mitla. The Aztecs called this ruin "the place of sorrows." It was here, in addition to traditional pyramids and palaces, there is famous Hall of Columns with 6 giant phallic pillars. Mitla is one of the oldest cultural and political center in the south of Mexico. Mitla originated in the 8th century BC but the ancient history of the settlement is almost unknown. In the 10-14th centuries Mitla was the center of Zapotec culture.
 

Temples of Mitla are oriented along the azimuth of 10° what corresponds to the angle of nonagon.
 

Mixco Viejo


Misko Viejo is a city of classical and late classical period in the highlands of Guatemala. The architecture clearly shows the influence of the city-states of Mexicans: low flat-topped towers, stadiums to play ball, decoration of facades of buildings, etc. Misko Viejo  is a capital POKOM Maya. It is located at 1,800 meters above sea level. A large shopping center, through which the trade route passed between Mexico and the cities of   Usumacinta River Basin. Spaniards conquered it in 1525.
 

Almost all the buildings of Misko Viejo are oriented on the angles of regular geometric shapes.

   
   

Palenque


Time did not keep the name of the ancient city. Chol Indians living in these places, called these ruins "Otiottiun", what means "stone city". Later, however, behind the ruins was fixed the name of a small town of Palenque located nearby.
 

In general, Palenque is clearly created on the ruins of older structures, in the creation of which were used advanced technologies such as stone processing and construction - technologies far exceeding the capacity of manual primitive labor of Indians.


The orientation of the structures, which were built by Indians with using of ancient blocks has a characteristic deviation to the east from the direction to the north, close to the angles of the correct figures.

 
 

Plazuelas


Archaeological Zone Plazuelas is pre-Columbian settlement in the Mexican state Guanajuato. It is located in 10 kilometers to the west from the city Pénjamo. Access to the monument is opened for tourists. In the center of the settlement there is a large rectangular area with several pyramidal structures and platforms, as well as a large field for ball games. To the north of these structures there is a field with lots of boulders covered with carvings. The ancient settlement was much larger of excavated by archaeologists. On its eastern boundary there was large round building, conditionally called El Kakheti.
 

Diagonals of inside the area and playgrounds for golf correspond to the angles of hexagram and octagon.

 

 

Pueblo Bonito


Pueblo Bonito divides into two parts a smooth wall running from the north to the south through the central area. On each side there is a "big kiva", what creates a symmetrical layout, similar to other such ruins in Chaco Canyon. Besides a large KIV was found more than thirty small KIV or ceremonial structures. Inner dwellings in comparison with the other dwellings of Anasazi culture, were quite spacious. Pueblo Bonito covers an area of ??about 8,000 sq.m.  and consists of about 650 rooms (by some estimates their number reaches 800).
 

If we coincide the center of pentagram with the center of the southern kivas, then layout in the eastern part of the Pueblo Bonito will coincide with the azimuths of 36° and 72°.

Takalik Abaj


Abajo Takalik (in the language of the Quiche Maya - "strong stone") is one of the most important archaeological monuments in Guatemala. It appeared at the turn of the 1st millennium. BC, Abajo Takalik  had its history for 2000 years, until the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD. Abajo Takalik is interesting, first of all, the fact that here is better visible the historical connection between the first Mesoamerican civilization - the Olmecs (affects Mexican influence, it is in 50 kilometers away) and following the Mayan civilization.
 

Pyramidal platform in Abajo Takalik is oriented along the azimuth of 20° what corresponds to the angle of nonagon.

Tazumal


Tazumal is considered one of the most important centers of the Maya in Salvador. The city was building during 750 years, mainly in the years 600-900 AD. Of nine identified structures of ancient Tazumal only two preserve in more or less preserved state. The central and largest (up to 30 m in height), the structure of the city is stepped ceremonial platform at the northern edge of which is found several graves of Mayan, jade jewelries and religious objects. From the south side is located the field for golf and from the west rises a pyramid. A small museum Tazumal exhibits archaeological finds made on the territory of city and also excavations of ruins of El -Trapiche and Casa Blanca.
 

Tazumal pyramid is oriented according to pentagram along the azimuth of 18°.

Tikal


Tikal is the largest and most studied monument of Mayan the classical era. This city is located in northern Guatemala in the department of Peten, in the area of ??tropical rain forests, occupying a wide limestone plain, crossed with chain of rocky hills, swamps and ravines.
 

In 50 kilometers from Tikal is located the oldest Mayan city of Uaxactun with which connects it the ancient "Sacbe" - paved road with white stone. Giant city glorify with many steles (there are 83 of them here) and altars (54). Here were found the first significant works of Mayan carvers.


In Tikal there are structures orientated according to hexagram, pentagram and nonagon.

 

 

 

Tula


Tula is the ancient capital of the Toltecs, one of the major pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica. Often it is identified with the mythical city of Tollan. Tula is located in 65 km north-west from Mexico City. Nahuatl-speaking Toltecs came as nomads from the north of Mexico what in the history of Mesoamerica happened often. Over time they have become a major force in the Tula region, previously located in the area of ??influence of Teotihuacan.
 

The most famous of preserved buildings is the Pyramid of the Morning Star (also Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the Temple Tlauiskalpantekutli or Temple B), on  platform of which stands a group of five-meter stone warriors carrying once the roof of the temple. At the entrance there are large statues of snakes. Impresses saved big frieze, on which are depicted jaguars eagles devouring human hearts. In columned halls of the palace complex are visible preserved original drawings.


If you turn pentagram on 3° counter-clockwise, you will obtain orientation of area for ball games and a small pyramid. Rotation of pentagram on 3 degrees counter-clockwise is equivalent to rotation of hexagram on 15° clockwise. Therefore, making this turn, we again will obtain the same orientation.

 

Uxmal


Uxmal is one of the cultural and political centers of the ancient Maya in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). Time of foundation and the ancient history of Uxmal is still unknown. In the late 10th century Uxmal was captured by a tribe of Tutul- Shiv connected with Toltecs. In the 13-15 centuries between Uxmal ,Mayyapanom and Chichen Itsoy repeatedly were internecine wars for political domination on Yucatan. The exact chronology of these events is uncertain because of contradictions in the sources, but probably in the beginning of 13 century Uxmal was defeated by troops of Mayyanana in 1441.
 


Among  many monuments of monumental architecture are the most significant: "The Palace of the King" is one of the most beautiful buildings in Uxmal, richly decorated with sculpture and mosaic frieze of the 20 thousand of individual plates, "House of Magic" is the temple on  pyramid (in height of 30 m), "Dovecote" "Convent" - complex of 4 buildings surrounding a courtyard with an arch on the south side, "House of the turtles", "House of the dwarf".


The ruler's palace is oriented along the azimuth of 30° what corresponds to the angle of hexagram, and the angle of platform and a small temple are oriented along the angles of nonagon 20°/110°.

 

 

Two walls of another temple and some other buildings are oriented according to pentagram.

 

 

Xochicalco


The name "Xochicalco" is translated from the Aztec language as the "house of flowers." There have left their traces Aztecs and Mayans. When ceased to exist the great city-states of Teotihuacan and Palenque, flourished Xochicalco. Architectural features, bas-reliefs directly indicate on the strong influence of the Mayan traditions.
 

Some facilities of Xochicalco are oriented along the azimuth of 15° and some according to pentagram.

 

Yaxchilan


Yaxchilan or Yashchilan (literally"Green stones") is the former city of Mayan civilization. It is ituated on the River Usumacinta now the state of Chiapas in Mexico. Yaxchilan is known for a large number of sculptures. In ancient times the city was called Isankanak (Izancanac). Yaxchilan was an important city of the Maya civilization in the classical period and dominated in the Usumacinta, subjugating such cities as Bonampak.
 

For a long time the city was an ally of Piedras Negras in present-day Guatemala, and for some time of Tikal; competed with Palenque, against which waged war in the year 654. Yat Balam, founder of the dynasty, ascended to the throne on August 2 320, when Yaxchilan was a small town. The city-state gradually grew and developed into a regional center, and the dynasty ruled until the beginning of the IX century. Maximal influence  the city reached during the reign of the king by the name of Shield Jaguar II, who died at age 90 in 742.


Some structures of the complex are oriented as well as Teotiuakan  along the azimuth of 15°.

Zempoala


Cempoala is the first settlement in America, the people of which supported by conquest. Cempoala in the XVI century was the capital of the Totonac. They could not tolerate Aztecs, and after meeting with lush garlands of flowers provided to Cortes and his army, joined the march to Tenochtitlan in the amount of 1.5 thousand. Leader of the Totonac informed  Cortes about existence of other potential allies tlashkalintseies.
 

Now from the capital of the Totonac left only ruins (most built in the XIV-XV centuries). They are on a large lawn surrounded with palm trees. Ceremonial circle with diameter of 2-5 meters, neatly belted with low stone well with columns is a mystery. There are three of them. Cortes with his retinue, they say, even slept right inside of large circle. The whole point is in small columns around the circle: on a big ring there are 40 of them, on average one there are 28, on the small one there are13. Presumably, they were used for a certain "calibration" of astronomical cycles (idol displacement between columns depending on the day on the calendar).

 

Some facilities of the complex are oriented along the azimuth of 100°.

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