In this section we will focus on ancient buildings in Europe, their orientation and layout. Let's start with Delphi, which represent a huge complex consisting of various buildings. Temples, terraces, rows of columns, retaining walls, lined with massive blocks, all of this Delphi.
As the construction was carried out on the hillside, terraces had to do and build retaining walls, one of which has an azimuth 54 degrees and corresponds to pentagram.
The largest and the most massive wall situated above has an azimuth of 60°, and corresponds to hexagram, as well as some other buildings within the complex.
Tomb of the Giants this is a name which residents of Sardinia gave to mysterious structures, built of huge boulders. Such "tomb" refers to the Bronze Age. In total were found about 700 of them. In the picture we see the biggest and the most famous megalithic monument.
It is clearly seen, that the tomb is oriented according to pentagram along the azimuth of 108°.
Curious structures pyramids which today the majority of researchers refer to Mycenaean times are located near the village of Elliniko, on the way to Kefalari in Greece. The exact purpose of these structures is unknown. But it is clearly seen that all construction is oriented according to the angle of octagon 22.5°, i.e. 45° in half.
Hеrа Argosky is Greek epithet of the goddess Hera, the oldest place of worship of which was Argolis, an area in the north-east of Peloponnese. Argos was considered among the Greeks the most ancient city between it and Mycenae there was the sanctuary of the goddess Heraion. Its construction was attributed to the hero Jason and the Argonauts. Old Temple of Hera was burnt in 423 BC after which the architect Evpolem. built a new one.
North of the temple there is a horizontally-designed playground, built of huge stone blocks. The platform is oriented according to pentagram, and if you select the appropriate scale as it is shown on the image, the pentagram circle will pass through the angles of Hera temple.
West of Hera temple there are remains of buildings orientation of which corresponds to an 8-and 9-gon.
Mycenae perhaps is the most famous city in Greece, the kingdom of Agamemnon the leader of hike Achaeans against Troy city, which dominated 400 years in Greek history. The ancient Greeks attributed the construction of the Mycenaean wall in height of 13 meters and in width of 7 to cyclopes.
In chaotic layout of Mycenae at first glance, track obvious laws and relationships of objects to each other. Orientation of many objects correspond to angles of the correct figures, in particular to hexagram and to pentagram.
Paestum (Poseidonia) is an ancient city in the south-west of Italy, was founded around 600 BC on the west coast of Lucania. The temple in Paestum is dedicated to the goddess Hera, but not simply as such, but namely to Argive Hera, whose temple in Argos is the ancient center of worship, we considered above.
Communication with the correct figures in Paestum is traced through diagonal of various temples, which at the correct scale interact with neighboring structures.
Once Sarmizegetusa was the principal military, religious and political center of independent pre-Roman Dacia. The religious significance to this city gave Dacian sanctuary, located in it. Sarmizegetusa was the residence of the Dacian kings, including the last king of Dacians - Decebalus. Город был разрушен римскими войсками в ходе дакийско-римских войн в 106 г. (тогда решающей битвой стало сражение при Сармизегетузе).
The city was destroyed by the Roman armies during the Dacian-Roman wars in 106 (then the decisive battle was the Battle of Sarmizegetusa).
Goseck circle is Neolithic structure in Goseck, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It consists of several concentric moats in diameter of 75 meters and two palisade rings with gates in certain places. Currently Goseck circle is considered to be the oldest known in the world of solar observatory of the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
The first reports of Goseck circle are published in August 2003. German journalists dubbed this place "German Stonehenge", although the use of the word "henge" is hardly correct outside Britain. Monument refers to the archaeological stroke-ornamented ware culture. First circle was discovered in 1991 in the study of area from the airplane, when on the background of wheat field was discovered round silhouette.
Excavations began Francois Bert and Peter Biel from the University of Halle-Wittenberg in 2002. When comparing with GPS data archaeologists discovered, that two of the southern passage mark the onset of summer and winter solstices.
In addition south-east passage corresponds to the angle of hexagram of 120° measured from the direction to the north. On the opposite side, this line coincides with the white "marks", which, as you can notice, there are a few.
Direction of the second south-west passage coincides with the angle of octagon 225 degrees. Eastern white 'mark', coincides with an angle of 72 degrees pentagram, measured from the direction of the north.
Su Nuraxi - nuragichesky is the largest archaeological monument in the city of Barumini, Sardinia. Object listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The center of the complex is a three-storied tower - Nuraghe, erected around the XV century BC.
The seemingly chaotic development is not such and corresponds to regular geometric shape. The whole complex is designed, seems, according to nonagon and individual elements are oriented along the angles of octagon and pentagram.
Tarsch –is archaeological complex near the town of Tarsch on Malta dates back to about 2800 BC. It is ncluded in the UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with 5 other Megalithic Temples of Malta. Large stone blocks were discovered in 1914 by local farmers when plowing a field. Tarsch consists of three separate but connected to each other temple buildings.
This monument requires more careful study, but it is already clear now that the central part of the structure is oriented along the azimuth of 140°.
The city is located on the east coast of Sicily surrounded by breathtaking landscapes formed by the picturesque harbor. In 287 BC Archimedes was born in Syracuse, also it is the city where Plato worked. There is a grand Greek theater the second largest in the world.
Orientation of the theater corresponds to the angle of pentagram 144°. In addition, near the amphitheater there is a curved wall, which gradually turns into a straight line. The final section of the wall has azimuth of 30° and corresponds to hexagram.
Extensive archaeological area of ??Agrigento did not subject to systematic excavations and is protected as a World Heritage Site. Some ancient Greek temples on the territory of complex have no equal in safety, at least, outside Greece itself. The ancient name of the city is Akragas or Agrigentum, which was founded as a colony Rhodians of Gela in about 581 BC.
Most of the buildings in Agrigento is somehow related to regular polygons. Some are directly oriented, for example, according to hexagram, other are planned proportionally. On the image with the pentagram, the distance from the center to the first intersection corresponds to the width of the temple, corresponds to horizontal line and the axis - 72° is diagonal.
Another temple - Concordia (Temple of Concordia), located nearby, is also designed in accordance with pentagram.
Parthenon is the most famous ancient architectural complex, located on the Acropolis of Athens, dedicated to the patroness of the city and the whole Attica, the goddess Athena- Virgin. To imagine the Parthenon as it was in the days of Pericles is not easy. All that remained of it now on the Acropolis, perhaps unfortunately named only as ruins.
Parthenon temple was designed in the proportions of hexagram, but is oriented according to pentagram, the axis of which is a diagonal. In addition, an amphitheater of Acropolis, also is oriented according to pentagram.
According to legend, there appeared ancient Rome- on the Palatine were nourished and brought up by a wolf Faustulus Romulus and Remus, Romulus here laid the city. Legend says that in 753 BC the twins Romulus and Remus asked the Gods, who should rule the city based on the banks of Tiber. Remus climbed on the Aventine and waited for signs, and Romulus climbed the Palatine. Six vultures took off from the Aventine and twelve rose from Palatine Each of the brothers thought that the Gods are favorable to him.
Palatine is a fairly large complex of buildings, which are located next to the Colosseum. Some of them are oriented according to pentagram.
Moscow. Kremlin. Cathedral of the Assumption.
Let's see what is situation with things the orientations of the most ancient temples of Russia. Let's start with the Kremlin. Cathedral of the Assumption, according to GE, is orientate by the angle of pentagram - 72°.
In 1340-ies Sergius of Radonezh founded a small cenobitic monastery with wooden church in the name of the Holy Trinity near Khotkovo, on a hill Makovets. In 1355, in the monastery introduced a new, cenobitic charter. Territory of monastery was divided into three parts - residential, public and defensive, abbot of the monastery became its founder. The plan of the monastery, established then in general reached our days (rectangular courtyard with the church and the refectory, surrounded on four sides as cells).
In 1422 on the place of wooden church (which was moved to the east) abbot Nikon established the first stone building of the monastery - the Trinity Cathedral, built by the monks of the Serbian Kosovo who found refuge in the monastery after the Battle of Kosovo Polje. During the construction of the cathedral were uncovered relics of St. Sergius of Radonezh, which are there to this day.
In the painting of the church attended prominent painters Andrei Rublev and Daniil Black, for the iconostasis of the cathedral was created the famous "Trinity". Trinity Cathedral venerated by Moscow princes: here were committed prayers before the campaigns and successful completion of them (for example, Vasily III maid a prayer service here for successful campaign to Pskov in 1510 and Ivan IV the Terrible made a prayer service in honor of the successful capture of Kazan in 1552) with cross kissing "krestotselovaniem" fastened contracts, performed baptisms heirs to the throne.
Trinity Cathedral in St. Sergius Lavra has the same orientation as the Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin, i.e. - 72°.
... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl near Vladimir is not only the perfect temple, created in Russia, but also one of the greatest monuments of world art ... Grabar
Refinement of proportions and overall harmony of the temple was noted by many researchers; Church of the Intercession is often called the most beautiful Russian church. The church was consecrated in honor of the Intercession of the Virgin, set in Russia in the middle of the XII century by initiative of Andrew Bogolyubsky. This is probably the first church of the Intercession in Russia.
The location of the temple is unique: Church of the Intercession was built in a valley, on the flood meadow. Earlier, near the church was a place of confluence of Nerl to Klyazma The church was almost on the river "arrow", making out crossroads of the most important water trade routes. Church of the Intercession was built on a man-made hill. Conventional tape foundation laid at a depth of 1.6 m, is extended with base of the wall in height of 3.7 m, which were covered with clay soil of artificial hill lined with white stone. Thus, the foundation went to depth more, then five meters.
This technology allowed to resist the rising of the water during the river spills (up to 5 m). The church's walls are decorated with carved reliefs. The central figure in the composition of the three facades of the temple is enthroned king David with Psalter (stringed musical instrument) in his left hand, with two fingers blessing with his right hand. Also are used in the design lions, birds and female masks.
See how everything is interconnected, King David, his son Solomon, and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, oriented to his seal of Solomon - hexagram.
The originality of the natural landscape caused the formation of the two parts of Tobolsk city the top one and bottom (piedmont). On the top part of Cape Trinity is Tobolsk Kremlin - the pearl of Siberia. In the ensemble of Tobolsk Kremlin are included St. Sophia Cathedral of the Assumption with a sacristy, bell tower, Bishop's house, tower and walls, Rentereya - a complex of buildings of the former palace governor, Seating yard. Prison fortress walls and piedmont Pryamskoy vzvoz - facilities of XVIII. All of these buildings and structures are historical and cultural monuments of federal significance and are part of a complex of State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve. On the monuments are working on the restoration, reconstruction and adaptation under the spiritual cultural centers.
Orientation of the Assumption Cathedral corresponds to the angle of pentagram
Well, let’s speak in the end about another mysterious object in Russia, which recently was discovered in the Middle Urals, in the village of Chusova that emerged at the sawmill mill and started to work in 1721. Near the mill appeared wharf of Nikita Demidov Tagil plants and in 1727 near the dam was built ironworks of Akinfiey Demidov.
In the village is situated strange megalithic structures - wall- wharf, built from multi-ton stone blocks on the principle of polygonal masonry, unusual for Russia. Stone -wall has clearly sustained slope and polygonal masonry structures is identical to many buildings of the world and has every reason to be considered as such.
There is not many information about this object. Nobody carried out fundamental scientific research about masonry. Individual enthusiasts published on the Internet only a general description of the subject and shared their thoughts that it clearly stands out from the general style of buildings in this area.
But the most interesting, that the wall is clearly lined out along the azimuth of 54° and corresponds to the angle of pentagram. Maybe this fact, will shed light on the mystery of its appearance and function.