1 In the article "Universal Navigation System", we told about the fact that can be system of orientation based on other principles than the current approved. In such system there are no coordinates there are only the directions and distances, which are set by means of by means of the pivot points built on the planet by universal mathematical laws.
Modern pilots need only coordinate system in order to determine the direction of flight and calculate distances. If they could do it with the other way, the coordinates would not be necessary to them. This question is very relevant today, as we start to explore new planets on which there is no system of coordinates and it is impossible to determine their exact location relatively to the other objects. That is why we manage the rover through the camera, since we do not have opportunity to create pivot points on Mars.
In the study of ancient monumental structures constructed on the surface of the planet, it was discovered, that they are interrelated, and are located on the Earth not chaotic, but by a certain system. See section "Historical geodesy."
Analysis of the mutual arrangement of the most famous historical objects showed that most of them, anyway, are related by regular polygons. See. Article "Pentagram and hexagram in the arrangement of points SDMS".
With the imposition of banal correct figures, oriented to the cardinal points on the terrain, the program Google Earth revealed a surprising and startling fact in the program Google Earth (GE). It turned out that the vast majority of ancient buildings, regardless of continent, culture and other circumstances are oriented, and often designed according to the angles and proportions of regular geometric polygons.
This fact speaks about much but primarily on the fact that even those objects that are not directly oriented to the cardinal points anyway are tied to the north direction Therefore, it is possible to forget about shifting of the poles in ancient times and the term "old pole" you can throw out of head. At least for structures, which will be discussed below.
One can argue about the accuracy, distortions and other circumstances affecting on the reliability of the study. Therefore, for proving a simple and reliable quantitative method is chosen. If you carefully learn this material and see all the objects, then be sure then that the most ancient structures, and sometimes not so far away, are oriented according to the angles of regular geometric shapes. For what it can be necessary read in the last part.
All polygons are constructed in a graphics editor and oriented to the North and imposed on the objects without distortion. If the figure has a rotating, on the image it will be shown how much and in what direction. But this is rare event and is mainly concerned to the angle of 15 degrees, as it is half the angle of hexagram 30°. Let's start with Alexandria.
The history of Alexandria dates back to 332 BC, when Alexander the Great founded on the place of a small settlement Rakoto capital of his great empire. Construction of the first city's buildings were completed more than half a century later under Ptolemy II. Since that time, Alexandria has become not only the new capital of Egypt, but also the cultural center of the Hellenistic world.
As it can be seen on the image below, the whole complex of Alexandria is planned according to the octagon along the azimuth 157.5°. Inside of a large square of the temple it is seen another square building, which diagonal is close to the angle of pentagram - 108°.
Abu Mina is a complex of monuments of early Christianity, located in 45 km from Alexandria. The ruins of Abu Mina, the city of St. Menas are quite extensive and have different features. It is noteworthy that the churches mostly are not typical for Egyptian architecture, perhaps because they were built by foreign pilgrims.
Some structures are oriented according to pentagram, in particular diagonal of the main temple. Azimuth 144°.
The exact date of construction of the Colosseum of El Jem is unknown. Most likely, it was built between 230 and 238 years of new era by Emperor Gordian. Gordian was the owner of these lands. The long axis of Colosseum has a length of 450 feet, and the short has 370 feet.
Orientation of amphitheater is close to the azimuth of 80 degrees and corresponds to the angle of nonagon. In the future, we will see that the azimuth of 80° is very common orientation among the ancient buildings.
Amarna, Tel el-Amarna (Tell el Amarna), is settlement in Egypt, on the east bank of Nile, in 287 kilometers to the south of Cairo. Near Amarna the remains of one of the capitals of ancient Egypt Ahetatona ("Horizon of Aten") are located which was transferred from Thebes by Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) in the end of the 15th century. BC. e. In the center of Ahetaton there was a large palace, on the outskirts there were country palaces, to the North there was the palace of Queen Nefertiti.
Most of the structures of Amarna is designed along the azimuth 15°, but there are also remains of a temple orientation of which corresponds to pentagram.
In the center of Carthage towered fortress Beers, which once was a center of Phoenician Carthage. Around the fortress lasted one or two walls, the first surrounded the main part and the second surrounded the Eshmun temple located on a hilltop. There one could rise, having overcome 60 monumental steps. This temple served as the last refuge for the defenders of Punic Carthage. On the slopes of the hill were found ruins of Phoenician houses of IV century BC. e., which could be up to 5 floors in the height.
Most of the buildings of Carthage is oriented along the azimuth 30° and corresponds to hexagram.
Slightly above the rows of column are visible two small temples one of which is oriented along the azimuth 70 * and corresponds to nonagon and the other one to the azimuth of pentagram - 36°.
Sixty kilometers to the North from Luxor Temple ascended to heaven majestic temple of the goddess Hathor. Ancient city Dendera is the capital sixth provinces of Upper Egypt. In the ancient texts say that the temple is built by Pharaoh Khufu. Then the temple was reconstructed by Penn I and later, in the era of New Kingdom, Thutmose III built a new sanctuary by the model of ancient structure of Cheops. Temple of Ptolemaic period was the latest in a series of great monuments.
Orientation of the temple is close to 18° and corresponds to pentagram including proportionally.
Rock temple Derr is located among the cliffs on the east bank of Nile, and it was laid or at least trimmed by Ramses II, who as you can see, built a lot in Nubia. He argued that he was a true creator of this structure, called it the temple "of Ramses in the house of Ra".
Rock, in which is carved the temple, is so little use for this purpose that the side walls of the rooms and halls are only approximately straight and curve completely with arbitrary manner. In this regard the Derr temple cannot be compared with other Nubian rock temples.
As it can be seen in the picture the temple is oriented according to pentagram along azimuth 108°.
At the foot of the sacred rock - Jebel Barkal, in height of 98 meters, in the gyrus of Nile in northern of Sudan, which bore the name of the ancient Nubia, is the capital of the ancient state of Kush - Napata.
Jebel Barkal (ancient Egypt. - "Sacred Rock") - rock, 98 meters in height in the gyrus of the Nile in northern Sudan, which bore the name of Nubia in ancient times. Denotes the location of Napata - the capital of ancient State of Kush. Since that time, the ruins of the Great Temple of Amun and another 12 temples, palaces and three Nubian preserved. Here, nearby, are located Nubian pyramids, one of which is clearly oriented along the azimuth and 40 * and corresponds to nonagon.
In the group of pyramids, though not explicitly, but certain laws can be traced relating to the mutual arrangement.
Another pyramid oriented along the azimuth 60°, and the temple, which diagonal is an axis of pentagram - 72°. In this case, two more axes, one of which is the direction to the South, also pass through the corners of the temple and the center of pentagram combined with the designated point inside the building.
South of Egypt in territory of modern Sudan, in the desert are strange pyramid. Travelers usually think they are the creation of skilful hands of the ancient Egyptians. However, it is not. If you look closely at these structures, they are neither in style, nor in texture is not similar to the burial place of the pharaohs, though located near the river Nile. The pyramid was built of Sandstone and reach a height of 15 meters. The General layout of the pyramid complex corresponds to the pentagram.
The word "Karnak" in Arabic means "the Palace". So this place was called because from under the sand here looked through the impressive ruins, which the Arabs had found the ruins of an ancient Palace. Actually it was what was left from the grandiose and the largest temple of Ancient Egypt, dedicated to the chief deity of the Middle and New Kingdom the God Amun.
As expected, structures of the complex have orientation according to regular geometrical figures.
Luxor temple — remains of the Central temple of Amun-RA, on the right Bank of the Nile, in the southern part of Thebes, within the modern city of Luxor. The temple of the gods Amun, Mut and Khonsu represents the most complete embodiment of the architectural features of the New Kingdom (XVI—XI centuries BC).
The temple is distinguished by grandeur of conception, the monumentality and solemnity of the details, a large number of columns. The temple is oriented North-West to South-East in azimuth 20/110° and corresponds to nonagon.
Of Cyrene — one of the greatest cities of antiquity, the middle of the historical region of Cyrenaica. The city, dedicated to Apollo, stood in the territory of modern Libya 16 km from the port of Apollonia. According to Herodotus, the chief town of ancient Libya was founded by immigrants from the Cycladic Islands, Working first at the Plateia island and then the mainland, 16 km from the sea. The first king of Cyrene, Doric, Kirani was butt-Aristotle.
One of the temples of Cyrene oriented in azimuth 15°, proportional to the hexagram. Another temple has an orientation of 22.5° and corresponds to the 8-square to the octagon.
Some more temples of Cyrene oriented and planned according to the pentagram.
Dongola — the middle part of Nubia on the Nile river for over 230 miles. Until the mid 4th century ad was a part of the country of Ethiopia. To 6 century there existed a state of Mukura, whose population by this time had been Christianized. Heyday of Dongola was reached in the 12th century, which contributed significantly to the transit trade in slaves, and iron, ivory, etc. In the 16th century, Dongola became part of the Muslim state of sennar, which has led to the displacement of both Dongola Christianity.
Ruins of ancient buildings at Dongola suggests that when the temples were oriented according to the pentagram.
11 carved in the rocks of the medieval cave churches of this "New Jerusalem" of the XIII century located in the mountain area in Central Ethiopia, close to the village with traditional, round huts. Lalibela is the pinnacle of Ethiopian Christianity, which is now a place of pilgrimage and worship.
The Lalibela cross is an excellent landmark, visible even from space. As it turned out, the edges of the basin are also relevant to the correct orientations. In the first case the diagonal has an azimuth close to 60°. In the second, South side has an azimuth of 100°, so the angle between the diagonal and this side of 40°.