Europe: Temples, Palaces ХАДЖАР КИМ / Hagar Qim

ХАДЖАР ИМ.jpg
PHOTO: Mario Mizzi 35°49'39.83"С 14°26'31.49"В

Хаджар-Им, букв. «стоячие камни (для) поклонения» — мегалитический храмовый комплекс на острове Мальта. Относится к фазе Джгантия мальтийской древней истории (3600-3200 гг. до н. э.). Строители Хаджар-Има использовали коралловый известняк. Поскольку данный материал достаточно мягок, храм сильно пострадал от эрозии за тысячелетия своего существования. На фасаде храма расположен трилитный (выполненный из 3 плит) вход, наружная скамейка и ортостаты. Перед храмом расположен широкий двор с оградительной стеной. Проход ведёт в середину здания.Такая конструкция напоминает планировку и других мегалитических храмов Мальты.

 

 

Haġar Qim is a megalithic temple complex found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, dating from the Ġgantija phase (3600-3200 BCE). The megalithic complex of Ħaġar Qim is located atop a hill on the southern edge of the island of Malta, on a ridge capped in soft globigerina limestone. All exposed rock on the island was deposited during the Oligocene and Miocene periods of geological time. Globigerina limestone is the second oldest rock on Malta, outcropping over approximately 70% of the area of the islands. The builders used this stone throughout the temple architecture. The temple’s façade is characterized by a trilithon entrance, outer bench and orthostats. It has a wide forecourt with a retaining wall and a passage runs through the middle of the building, following a modified Maltese megalithic design. A separate entrance gives access to four independent enclosures which replace the north-westerly apse. Features of temple architecture reveal a preoccupation with providing accommodation for animal sacrifices, burnt offerings and ritual oracles. Recesses were used as depositories for sacrificial remains. Excavation has uncovered numerous statuettes of deities and highly decorated pottery. No burials exist in the temple or the area surrounding Ħaġar Qim, nor have any human bones been discovered in Maltese temples. Bones of numerous sacrificial animals have been found. It is theorized that the Ħaġar Qim complex was built in three stages, beginning with the 'Old Temple' northern apses, followed by the 'New Temple', and finally the completion of the entire structure. 500 meters from Ħaġar Qim stands the Mnajdra megalithic temple. The surrounding area is typical of Mediterranean garrigue in its starkness and isolation; it is designated as a Heritage Park. A few hundred meters from the temple is one of the thirteen watchtowers built by Grand Master Martin de Redin, called Ħamrija Tower. A memorial to General Sir Walter Norris Congreve, Governor of Malta from 1924-1927, is located nearby. The village of Qrendi is a further two kilometers southwest of the temple complex.

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