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Halabiye is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Euphrates in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria. Halabiye was fortified in the 3rd century CE by Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, after whom the site was named in antiquity. After her revolt against the Roman Empire in 273, Halabiye was captured by the Romans and subsequently refortified as part of the Limes Arabicus. The earliest description is found in the De Aedificiis ("On Buildings") by Procopius, who described the fortress in the 6th century CE. Upon archaeological investigation of the site, Procopius description turned out to be highly accurate, suggesting that he knew the site from personal observation. Halabiye has drawn the attention of European travelers and scholars since the middle of the nineteenth century. The English explorer Gertrude Bell passed the site on her travels in northern Mesopotamia and it was photographed by the French aerial archaeology pioneer Antoine Poidebard in the 1930s.


 

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