Historical objects  Terra incognita 19.10.2020. Mariana trench.

расположение марианской впадиныMariana trench.

It is known that people know more about deep space than about the ocean depths on our planet. The ocean jealously keeps its secrets and contains a lot of underwater places, information about which is almost non-existent.

One of these places until recently was the Mariana trench, although it was discovered more than 150 years ago.

The Mariana trench, or more correctly – the Mariana trench as it is quite a narrow recess, the lowest solid surface of the Earth, which is in the South-Western Pacific ocean, near the Islands of the same name.

In 1875, the sailors of the English ship "Challenger", measuring the depth of the ocean in these parts, found "a place without a bottom". The cable of the lot was sinking down kilometer after kilometer, and the bottom was still not reached. Finally, at the ninth kilometer, the descent of the cargo stopped. It became clear that the deepest crevice on Earth was discovered.

Since then, research in this place has practically not stopped. Gradually, the shape of the cleft was determined, which, as it turned out, was close to the Crescent. Constantly updated depth data, which finally gave the exact location of the deepest place at a point with coordinates 11°23' s. s., 142°35' V. d., called the "Challenger Abyss".

As a result of many years of research, in 2011 the largest depth of the Mariana trench was determined, which with an accuracy of 40 meters is 10,994 kilometers.

марианская впадина

The pressure at this depth is monstrous, more than 1101 atmospheres (108.6 MPa). Basically, serial bathyscaphes are designed for a diving depth of about 6 - 7 thousand meters, and can not reach the bottom of the Mariana trench. Therefore, research at such depths requires special deep-sea equipment. In all the time since the Mariana trench was opened, it was possible to reach its bottom more or less successfully only four times.


на дне марианской впадины

The first dive to the bottom of the Mariana trench took place in 1960. This was done by a team of two people on Board the deep-sea bathyscaphe "Trieste". They were: American don Walsh and Swiss Jacques Picard.

креветка из марианской впадиныThe most important discovery of this expedition was the discovery of life at such depths. An upward current of water masses was also detected, which caused the refusal to bury nuclear waste in this place.

In the mid-nineties, the Japanese unmanned vehicle "Kaiko" made another successful dive and delivered soil samples from the bottom of the chute, which revealed various bacteria, worms, shrimps and other inhabitants of a hitherto unknown world.

In 2009, the Mariana deep was conquered by another American - made unmanned vehicle-the Nereus robotic vehicle, which not only picked up soil samples and representatives of deep-sea life, but also took numerous photos of them.

In 2012, the famous Director, author of "Titanic", "Terminator" and "Avatar" - James Cameron-made a single dive into the Mariana abyss. On a specially designed device, he reached the bottom and spent more than 6 hours there, collecting samples of silt, minerals and living organisms.  Based on photos and videos that were taken even in 3D format, the documentary "challenge to the abyss"was created.

Джеймс Камерон марианская впадина

In addition to these dives to the very bottom of the Mariana trench, small unmanned vehicles are constantly exploring, which bring new information about this mysterious world and its inhabitants.

Рыба марианской впадины

So, at a 4-kilometer depth of the Mariana trench, an active daikoku volcano was discovered, spewing molten sulfur with a boiling point of 187°, which collects in a small depression, forming a lake.

вулкан на дне марианской впадины
At a depth of two kilometers, the famous "black smokers" were discovered, which swirl in places where geothermal waters are saturated with hydrogen sulfide. In places of discharge, the water temperature reaches 450° and it does not boil just because of the huge pressure.

черные курильщики в марианмской впадине

But, of course, the most surprising discovery was the discovery of life at such great depths. It would seem that in such incredible conditions, in complete darkness and icy cold, under colossal pressure, nothing can survive. But life once again refuted these assumptions.

Yes, it has undergone an amazing metamorphosis, decreased in size, got rid of excess, but it has remained. At great depths, not only the simplest bacteria and worms were found, but also quite complex organisms.

рыба из марианской впадины

Like any unknown phenomenon, the Mariana trench is shrouded in a mass of secrets and riddles. Basically, they are associated with giant animals that live at great depths. They are both observed and found washed up on the shore, exposed to steel cables and metal beams.

When diving into the Mariana deep, the German bathyscaphe "Hayfish" stopped 7 kilometers from the surface. To find out the reason for the stop, the bathyscaphe team turned on the external light and froze. The bathyscaphe, like a walnut, tried to crack some antediluvian monster! Only a shock of electric current, launched on the outer skin of the device, managed to scare off the terrible monster.

In short, the vast deep-sea expanses of the earth's oceans are fraught with a huge number of mysteries and amazing facts that may well change our understanding of the world around us.