Таос-Пуэбло — древнее пуэбло (поселение индейцев), говорящих на языке таос группы северных языков тива. Наиболее примечательной особенностью Таос-Пуэбло является коричневато-красный глинобитный многоэтажный жилой комплекс, разделённый на две части речкой Рио-Пуэбло. Жилища были предположительно сооружены представителями культуры анасази, которые из-за длительной засухи позднее мигрировали в полноводный район Рио-Гранде.
Most archeologists believe that the Taos Indians along with other Pueblo Indians settled along the Rio Grande migrated from the Four Corners region. The dwellings of that region were inhabited by the Anasazi, and a long drought in the area in the late 1200s may have caused them to move to the Rio Grande where the water supply was more dependable. The history of Taos Pueblo include the plotting of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680, a siege by U.S. forces in 1847, and the return by President Nixon in 1970 of the Pueblo's 48,000 acres (194 km²) of mountain land taken by President Theodore Roosevelt and designated as the Carson National Forest early in the twentieth century. Blue Lake, which the people of the Pueblo traditionally consider sacred, was included in this return of Taos land. The Pueblo's web site names the acquisition of the sacred Blue Lake as the most important event in its history due to the spiritual belief that the Taos natives originated from the lake itself. An additional 764 acres (3.09 km2) south of the ridge between Simpson Peak and Old Mike Peak and west of Blue Lake were transferred back to the Pueblo in 1996.