Atlantic ocean: Megalits СКАРА-БРЕЙ / Skara Brae

Скара-Брей Б.jpg
PHOTO: lisa.malaguti 59° 2'55.58"С 3°20'34.61"З

Скара-Брей — крупное и хорошо сохранившееся поселение эпохи неолита, обнаруженное у залива на западном побережье Оркнейских островов, Шотландия. Состоит из 10 домов, объединённых в блоки, которые были населены в период примерно 3100-2500 гг. до н. э. Это — наиболее хорошо сохранившееся европейское поселение эпохи неолита — степень сохранности такова, что памятник включён в список Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО. Длительное время поселение Скара-Брей было скрыто под слоем осадочных пород, пока в 1850 г. в результате сильного шторма зимой холм оказался очищен от слоя травы.



Skara Brae (pronounced is a large stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney, Scotland. It consists of ten clustered houses, and was occupied from roughly 3100-2500 BC. It is Europe's most complete Neolithic village and the level of preservation is such that it has gained UNESCO World Heritage Site status, and been called the "British Pompeii". The village of Skara Brae lay hidden under grass and soil until 1850, when in the winter of that year a major storm stripped the grass from a large mound known as Skerrabra (or Skeroo Brae). The outline of several stone buildings was revealed and initial excavations were undertaken by William Watt, the laird of Skaill. By 1868, four buildings had been uncovered and "a very rich collection of objects had been deposited in Skaill house." The site then lay largely undisturbed until 1925, when another great storm breached the mound and damaged the previously exposed structures. The buildings were placed under the guardianship of the Commissioners of HM Office of Works, which built a seawall to protect the site. The distinguished archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe led the first professional archaeological investigation of the site between 1927 and 1930, consolidating the damaged structures and uncovering new ones. For the first time, the full extent and remarkable nature of the village was revealed. The seven stone buildings, linked by stone passageways, constituted a clustered village built out of flagstones that were naturally eroded by the ocean. These flags formed from easily worked Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Archeologists believe that these structures were originally roofed with timber and whalebone and enclosed by middens and thatching that completely covered the habitations. Timber was scarce in the area and was likely limited mostly to driftwood, but there was a large supply of flagstones from the nearby ocean already cut to rough size by the tides.