Ур — один из самых древних шумерских городов Междуречья. Истоки основания города уходят в пятое тысячелетие до нашей эры. Эпоху расцвета Ура относят приблизительно к началу третьего тысячелетия до нашей эры, так тазываемый Ранний Династический Период (3000 — 2400 до н. э.) После некоторого времени упадка, Ур расцвел снова при управлении 3-й династии Ура в XXI веке до н. э. Основатель этой династии — Ур-Намму построил большой зиккурат в честь Нанну, бога Луны.
Ur is modern Tell el-Mukayyar, Iraq, and was a city in ancient Sumer. Once a coastal city near the mouth of the then Euphrates river on the Persian Gulf, Ur is now well inland. Currently, Ur is south of the Euphrates on its right bank, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Nasiriyah, Iraq and close to the site of ancient Eridu. The site is marked by the ruins of a ziggurat, still largely intact, and by settlement mounds. The Great Ziggurat of Ur was a temple of Nanna, the moon deity in Sumerian mythology, and has two stages constructed from brick: in the lower stage the bricks are joined together with bitumen, in the upper stage they are joined with mortar. The temple was built in 2100 B.C. during the reign of Ur-Nammu. The temple stands 70 feet (21 m) high. Ur was inhabited in the earliest stage of village settlement in southern Mesopotamia, the Ubaid period. However, it later appears to have been abandoned for a time. Scholars believe that, as the climate changed from relatively damp to drought in the early 3rd millennium BC, the small farming villages of the Ubaid culture consolidated into larger settlements, arising from the need for large-scale, centralized irrigation works to survive the dry spells. Ur became one such center, and by around 2600 BC, in the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period III, the city was again thriving. Ur by this time was considered sacred to the god called Nanna (Sumerian) or Sin (Akkadian).