Africa: Pyramids ЕГИПЕТСКИЙ ЛАБИРИНТ / Labyrinth of Egypt

PHOTO: epokrgr 29° 16.460'С 30° 53.937'В

Пирамида построена для фараона Аменемхета III, который первым начал осваивать оазис Файюм. Как и другие пирамиды эпохи Среднего царства, она не очень велика, сложена из необожженного кирпича и лишь с внешней стороны была отделана камнем. Сторона основания пирамиды - 105 м, высота - 58 м, угол наклона - 48°45'. Каменная отделка давно обрушилась, и ныне пирамида больше напоминает холм. Внутренние помещения пирамиды представляют собой сложный комплекс истинных и ложных коридоров и небольших залов. Погребальная камера уникальна: она вырублена из единого куска известняка весом 110 т. Внутри находится саркофаг из кварцита. Поминальный храм, находившийся с южной стороны пирамиды, был известен в древности как Лабиринт. Геродот писал, что он состоял из 3000 комнат, связанных между собой коридорами. В греко-римский период Лабиринт привлекал массу путешественников. Нынe он полностью разрушен.



It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles. The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men; the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards. The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade. Hawara is an archaeological site of Ancient Egypt, south of the site of Crocodilopolis (Arsinoe) at the entrance to the depression of the Fayyum oasis. The first excavations at the site were made by Karl Lepsius, in 1843. William Flinders Petrie excavated at Hawara, in 1888, finding papyri of the first and second centuries, and, north of the pyramid, a vast necropolis where he found 146 portraits on coffins dating to the Roman period, famous as being among the very few surviving examples of painted portraits from Classical Antiquity, the "Fayoum portraits" illustrated in Roman history textbooks. Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawara (illustration, right) is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur. It is this that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place. At Hawara there was also the intact (pyramid) tomb of Neferu-Ptah, daughter of Amenemhet III. This tomb was found about 2km South of the king's pyramid.

Геоглифы Сахары