North America: Processed stones ОЛЬМЕКСКИЕ ГОЛОВЫ / Olmec colossal head

PHOTO: ЛАИ 18° 6'13.41"С 94° 2'27.34"З

Ольмеки достигли настоящего совершенства в обработке камня, в том числе и очень твердых пород. Ольмекские изделия из нефрита по праву считаются шедеврами древнего американского искусства. Монументальная скульптура ольмеков включала в себя многотонные алтари из гранита и базальта, резные стелы, скульптуры в человеческий рост. Но одной из самых примечательных и загадочных черт этой цивилизации являются громадные каменные головы.



The Olmec civilization was the first civilization of the Americas. Rising from the sedentary agriculturalists of the Gulf Lowlands as early as 1600 BCE, the Olmecs held sway in the Olmec heartland, an area on the southern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, in Veracruz and Tabasco. Roughly 125 miles long and 50 miles wide (200 by 80 km), with the Coatzalcoalcos River system running through the middle, the heartland is home to the major Olmec sites of La Venta, San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, Laguna de los Cerros, and Tres Zapotes. By no later than 1200 BCE, San Lorenzo had emerged as the most prominent Olmec center. While a layer of occupation at La Venta dates to 1200 BCE, La Venta did not reach its apogee until the decline of San Lorenzo, after 900 BCE. After 500 years of pre-eminence, La Venta was all but abandoned by the beginning of the fourth century BCE. Located on an island in a coastal swamp overlooking the then-active Río Palma, La Venta probably controlled a region between the Mezcalapa and Coatzacoalcos rivers. The site itself is about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) inland with the island consisting of slightly more than 2 square miles (5 km²) of dry land. The main part of the site is a complex of clay constructions stretched out for 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) in a north-south direction, although the site is oriented 8° west of north. The urbanized zone may have covered an area as large of 2 km².

Геоглифы Сахары