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Publications  HISTORICAL GEODESY 02.08.2011. NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012.

Нан-Мадол и транзит Венеры

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NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012


2012 promises to be saturated with various sort of events. Some of them can occur with a certain share of probability, but some will occur by all means. To the number of the last events concern such rather rare phenominon as transit of the Venus on a solar disk . No one alive person till 2004 saw passage of the Venus because last time it has happened in 1882.

NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012
Foto Benutzer:Klingon

 Passage of the Venus on the Sun disk - takes place when the planet the Venus is situated precisely between the Sun and the Earth, closing with itself a tiny part of a solar disk. Thus the planet looks from the Earth as the small black speck moving on the Sun. Duration of passage usually is some hours (in 2004 it lasted for 6 hours). At the same time, this is one of the most rare predicted astronomical phenomena.

Transits of the Venus occur in pairs which each time is divided with more than century. Each 243 years repeat 4 passages, two in winter (in 8 years), then there is a long interval 121,5 year, and two in summer (again in 8 years). For example, the previous winter passages have occurred on December, 9th 1874 and on December, 6th 1882. Recent passage has happened in 2004, on June, 8th, and the following will take place on June, 6th 2012. The subsequent passages will be only in 2117 and 2125, in December, again.

NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012The rarity of such phenomenon is explained with that planes of the Earth and the Venus rotation do not coincide. The angle of inclination plane orbit of the Venus to ecliptic (a plane of the Earth orbit ) makes 3 degrees and 40 minutes. Time of full turn around the Sun for the Earth is equaled to 365,3 days, and for the Venus to 224,7 days. Thus, each 583,9 days the Earth overtakes the Venus. But basically this overtaking occurs in such position of the Venus when it is situated over plane of ecliptic or under it. In such days the Earth dwellers can observe the Venus under a solar disk, or, accordingly, over it. And only in two points of ecliptic there is a meeting of two planets on one line. Thus the distance between planets becomes minimum, two (in 8 years) with intervals of 121,5 and 105,5 years. This results from the fact that 243 sidereal the orbital periods of the Earth (each is 365,25636 days, what is a bit more than tropical year make 88 757,3 days, and 395 sidereal the orbital periods of the Venus (224,701 days) make 88 756,9 days. Thus, through this time interval both the Venus, and the Earth come back almost to the same point in their orbits. This period corresponds to 152 syndical periods of the Venus.

The sequence of passing repeats oneself each 243 years, two (in 8 years) with intervals of 121,5 and 105,5 years. This results from the fact that 243 sidereal the orbital periods of the Earth (each is 365,25636 days, what is a bit more than tropical year make 88 757,3 days, and 395 sidereal the orbital periods of the Venus (224,701 days) make 88 756,9 days. Thus, through this time interval both the Venus, and the Earth come back almost to the same point in their orbits. This period corresponds to 152 syndical periods of the Venus.

Sequence of intervals «105,8 - 8 - 121,5 - 8» is not unique possible in a 243-year-old cycle owing to of small discrepancies in the periods of planets returning to connection points. Till 1518 this sequence looked as «8 - 113,5 - 121,5», and till 546 there were 8 passages, intervals between which were equaled to 121,5 year. The sequence existing now will remain till 2846 then it will be replaced with another one «105,5 - 129,5 - 8». It turns out, that the period in 243 years is rather stable but number of passages inside of it and duration of intervals can vary time currant.

The Venus always was the important object for ancient civilizations. Ancient Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians culture and Chinese’s knew about the Venus and wrote down its movement. Greeks considered, that morning and evening occurrences of the Venus represent the different "stars": Vesper is an evening star, and Phosphorus is a morning star. It is supposed, that Pythagoreans the first have understood, that it is the same object. In IV century B.C.Geraclid Pontijsky has assumed, that the Venus and the Mercury rotate around the Sun, but not around the Earth. ��ya which named the Venus «Nokh Ek» - «the Great star» or «�sus E�» - «the Star of the Wasp» believed, that the Venus personifies a god of Kukulkana (also known as Gukumats or Ketsalkoatl in other parts of ancient Central America). In manuscripts of Maya the full cycle of movements of the Venus is described. But, despite of the knowledge of this planet, Maya as well as other ancient civilizations, there are no data’s that they knew about passages of the Venus .
 For all originality of this event in transit of the Venus of 2012 there would be nothing unusual, if not one circumstance. The symmetry axis of terrestrial sector from which transit supervision is possible, is meridian of Nan Madol.

The main events during the phenomenon are contacts, by analogy with contacts during ring solar eclipse. Passages begins with contact I, when the disk of the planet from outer side concerns the Sun disk. Soon after contact it is possible to see I planet as small deepening along solar limb. All disk of the planet becomes visible for the first time at the moment of contact II when the planet touches the Sun from the internal side. During several next hours the planet silhouette slowly crosses a sparkling solar disk. At the moment of contact III planet reaches an opposite edge of a disk and again touches the Sun from within. At last, contact IV when the planet touches the Sun last time from the outside becomes the final moment of passage. Contacts I and II designate a phase named ingress (occurrence), contacts III and IV are known as egress convergence).

Lines of contacts can be displayed on the surface of the Earth and will designate points on the surface of our planet in which begins or finishes that or an other phase of transit. These four lines (in drawing they are shown with white colors) divide the Earth into four zones. The first is a zone where transit of the Venus is not observed at all (in drawing is the most dark). Second and third (more light) are zones where transit supervision is probable, but because it begins in certain areas of these zones till dawn and will continue after sunset it will be visible not everywhere. And only in the fourth zone (most light) formed by crossing of two previous zones, transit of the Venus will be observed to the full.

Axis of symmetry of this zone is meridian of Nan Madol.

NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012

Meridian Of Nan Madol is shown with a blue line.

NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012

As it is known, from the Earth it is possible to observe passage on a solar disk of one more planet of Solar system, namely - Mercury. Last such passage has happened on Thursday , November, 9th, 2006.

At studying of circumstances of this transit one more surprising coincidence has come to light. It has appeared, that the line of Mecury transit also passed through Nan Madol. It means that on November, 9, 2006, in Nan of Madole, simultaneously with sunrise, began of Mercury transit.

NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012

Probably coincidence in these two transits which wonderfully has united Nan Madol will help with the question decision - «For whatr it was required to build so grandiose construction on forgotten islands in the middle of the Pacific ocean?».

File Transit of Venus (Kmz.) (51Kb) for Google Earth

Original file The 2012 Transit of Venus (Kmz.)

 
At preparation of material sources have been used:


NAN MADOL and TRANSIT of the Venus In 2012 - Transit of Venus.

Прохождение Меркурия по солнечному диску 9 ноября 2006 г.

Транзит Венеры-Урусвати по диску Солнца.

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