How they softened the stone. Sigiriya. Part 1. Softening of the stone.
The fact that in ancient times worked with plastic stone is obvious to any thinking researcher, not burdened with dogmas. Traces of such work, we see everywhere, on all continents and in large quantities. But we only see the result and do not understand how it has been done.
There are many versions on this subject, any self-respecting "alternative man" put forward his hypothesis, and it is right. Only exchanging with ideas, discussing them, we can achieve the result. We will try to contribute into solution of this really outstanding question.
Everybody, who is familiar with the essence of the problem understand that the ancient humans could not possess with such technologies, something is wrong here. Either they knew more than we, or they were not humans, or humans, about which we know nothing. About this they say from all screens, write books and create sites. More and more people begin to be interested in how it was in fact, many realize that in the history of the seemingly well-known, there is mass completely unknown. We can say that we are not familiar with it at all. However, we will continue.
Modern science has theoretically proved the possibility of giving a crystalline solid one body plasticity, followed by a return to the hardness. And today it is a accepted fact. Another thing that implement this method in practice, we cannot, because it is associated with radiation, neutron emitters and huge costs. But, now we have the important fact that the softening of the stone is possible. Intuitively, all understand this, because very often face with a similar phenomenon. For example, the heated rosin becomes viscous, upon cooling it becomes solid again.
But granite is not rosin, and how much it is not heated it does not become softer. If melt stone to a liquid state, and then cool down, then it will be completely another material with other properties. I.e the crystal lattice of stone, of course, is amenable to thermal effects, but it breaks down and loses its properties. Therefore, it is necessary to affect on the mineral so, that only slightly weaken the bonds in the crystal lattice without destroying it.
There is another assumption, how softened stone, many ancient legends say about it, by the way, the stone can be plastic, acting on it with specific, specially selected sound waves. Inky say that the stone watered with juice of unknown tree became soft.
In any case, we do not possess such technology, so let us see how it made other builders in the past. Judging by the results of their work, the ancient masters could do stone plastic in different ways, depending on the tasks. They were not afraid of any weight or volume. With multi-ton blocks they worked easily and not compulsory.
One of the best example of such work is Sigiriya rock in Sri Lanka. Translated from Tamil language, Sigiriya means - "Lion Rock". Rock is rocky plateau with area of 1.5 hectares, which stands alone on the 170 meters above the surrounding plain in the center of Ceylon island. Since 1982, Sigiriya was included in the list of World Heritage Site UNESCO.
According to the official version on the top of Lion's rock before the palace of king Kasyapy placed, who ruled in Vcentury, and around it was the city with parks and gardens. This so-called palace is a miracle of engineering and construction art. And the most important is unclear how it was possible to perform such volume of work in such remote place and at such a height.
However, it is the height, most likely led to the construction method. Rather even not height and presence at this height almost everything they need for this construction. It remained only to deliver the equipment.
One of the many mysteries of Sigiriya are deepening of rectangular shape as suggested carved in the rock. Moreover, these recesses are so much that they literally cut up all plateau, and the volume of work is such if them, of course, digged which can be compared with the rest of work.
No one really cannot say for what were needed these recesses. Guides naively claim that they were made by monks make so that to move easier through the smooth rocks and monoliths.
But let us look at recesses.. In the study numerous photos of Sigiriya appeared such law, wells are mainly of two types, big and small square, and the same but rectangular. As a rule, in one location meet close both types. So boulder which we see in the picture is typical. Here we see a large square recess coming up, and large rectangular coming horizontally to the left.
Here's square hole nearby. Such impression that they were not hollowed out but pressed in.
On the following image from this impressions simply do not get rid of. Such feeling that along large piece of clay drove with round roller with square nozzles.
As soon as we will imagine, that the boulder was soft and the deepening are dents from some technical device, which made this stone plastic, everything will fall at once into place and Sigiriya will appear in all its beauty and genius.
If to assume that for softening the stone was necessary application of two types of devices, for example, for creation of vibrations with different frequency, then the square tracks it is one "contact" and rectangular the other one. Machines, moving on boulder made it soft and gave it the desired shape.
There is a reasonable question at once- why? The explanation may be very simple. Still, it's a palace and the shapeless lumps here for nothing. Slightly trim the flattened corners, and get a beauty.
It should be noted a very important moment. Those who created this and many other similar objects, never did anything for nothing. In everything had to be present versatility and harmony this is a characteristic and distinctive feature of monumental structures of such level.
It is unclear how all these giant boulders were in this place. It is possible that they were broken out of the rock, planning the top part of plateau and then having gave aesthetic form, made garden of rocks.
But let's go further. As seen in this image, the upper part of rock slope differs from bottom part. And it is impossible to escape from feeling that rock was poured with something from the top. This is because it is so.
In some places the top layer even is folded up like an ordinary plaster. This occurs due to the fact, that although this layer is integral with the parent material, but has other characteristics, it is more solid. This layer causes many disputes in the scientific environment.
If such similar to enamel coating was not, then the water would seep into the rock and gradually destroyed it. There is s no sense to build such monumental structures on the rock, which in 200-300 years can collapse. Therefore, the upper part of Sigiriya was treated and strengthened.
Now let us see how it was made. Only first, imagine yourself the mad monk who would agree in this place to cut down a "steps". If you can not, then you will be easier to perceive reality.
In fact, those are tracks from setting, which were going and melted the rock. Viscous mass flowed down, covering the appropriate sections with protective layer. Agree that with the naked eye you can see that those are dents left in something viscous, like plasticine. And nothing to do with erosion, this cover makes nothing for hundreds of years.
Here's another obvious example. Here used rectangular "nozzles" and the rock apparently floated. It is clearly visible that is an imprint of the same subject.
There is another simply amazing artifact. Moreover, that weakly represents how it was possible to make such a drain, on such height but in order to the lower part had ledge it was necessary to cut out all the rock around. On the rock, as we see there is no trace of machining.
But if we assume that the rock was soft, then from material of drain gutter it is possible to make the bottom part. And no matter how much they would break your head, there is no other explanation.
In addition, on the left lobe of the gutter, it is clearly visible, familiar to all alternative men ledge, so-called "nipple", to which apparently were connected mechanisms.
But that's not all. On the left side of the wall from the gutter, it is clearly visible straight line, which can be formed only if to the soft material press a narrow, straight object, such as a ruler. So that the drain seems to be made on the left side, and the band, this is the second "contact".
About gutters we'll talk, but for now let us return back to garden rocks. Now when the essence of process began more or less clear up, you can try to explain this boulder lying in the suburbs.
Most likely, on this lump they tuned technique. Chose the frequency, melt a bit adjusted, cut out volume, made border make were sure everything is working, and forward.
Here is another wonderful example. Again we see longitudinal stripes formed with rectangular "contact" in several passages and large square recess.
From this picture, you can make a very interesting hypothesis the stone melted in large rectangular nozzles, and squares this is trace of support on which moved apparatus itself. In this case, nothing prevents the support to be second "contact".
What they have achieved in this case. There was a large shapeless lump, which is a hindrance. The left edge melted, right one flown down itself, formed an interesting boulder.
If you look on the right side of the stone it is clearly visible imprint of something flat. As if they put an uncured cement sheet of metal, and then removed. Apparently held flow ability or vice versa accelerated. Or maybe "warmed up" the stone.
The next picture also suggests many reflections. In general, about dating of Sigiriya. Until now, there are disputes about whether the brickwork was, which is very much on the plateau made simultaneously with megaliths or later. It is believed that still later, at least, partially.
Simply if at the same time and so well preserved the brick, then one of two things, either this is heavy-duty brick or rock melted not long ago.
But in this case it seems that simultaneously. What monolith partially softened and he flowed this is clearly, but it partially flowed onto brickwork, having pressed several rows. Unfortunately, it is not possible to see so it or not but the rock apparently took the form of rock masonry.
Of course, we can say that the stone was pretreated and then slipped brick but it seems that this has not been done.
The following image confirms this idea.
Here first for backup tore a piece of stone from the monolithic rock below, which, however, stayed with it one. Then, between two rocks built a wall of ordinary stone.
For greater reliability gently walked along the edges with miracle machine and overlap a bit the rock on the wall. It is clear that such a structure will stand forever.
You may ask, why in such technologies to use broken stone. It's just a style of construction - maximum of efficiency at minimum cost. If in this place it is possible to use such boulders, then so it will be. Most likely because of unnecessary scattered around stone laid great wall and debris was removed and the task was completed.
Return to the rock garden, to a boulder, which we saw in the beginning. Let us look at it from the other side.
We can assume now that first with longitudinal "nozzles", apparently more potent in two rows in the middle upper portion of the monolith softened. Then with small square, perhaps, with vibrators, brought it to a point at the center, having gave sharp-nosed shape.
Apparently, the stone strongly protruding and it had to be pressed a bit with small rectangular nozzles.
This picture confirms once again that masonry and megaliths were created at the same time. Neighboring stone, probably, did not need in treatment, it was civilized and laid with brickwork.
This is only a boulder from a different perspective. It is clearly seen that the stone just flowed like flow concrete when it is exposed with vibrator.
Most likely, the longitudinal "nozzles" just melted monolith, and the square ones gave the desired shape with vibration.
And on this side perfectly clear that flowed only the top layer and the bottom part of the cliff remained unchanged.
The top layer looks as if it has just done, and it is clear "enamel", on which even the moss does not grow, and the lower part gradually destroyed. The same thing would have happened to all of Lion Rock, if it did not cover with molten mass.
The following photo again shows that the boulders it is covered with melt like chocolate cake icing.
If you open a large image (click on photo) and to bring the stone in the background, you can see that on the parent rock is also affected direct "attachment". Did it seems to melt dotek to the right place rocks below its widest part. Now the water will drain, without destroying the monolith.
In the foreground, the block a little Patanjali, and the excess is simply pulled forward. Do shovel, when interfering with the concrete.
Another remarkable instance, which has all kinds of holes. Here we see a smaller, but more correct square holes. They obviously left another modification of the tool and, as a rule, are located separately, without explicit scheme. Although in this case the small squares are parallel to the great, but there are other places of stone.
In this picture there is another interesting point. Ladder large squares, rising to mid-boulder, dropped, and then there is a continuous gutter. The impression that the ski-bearing he slid across the liquid layer.
The following photo is just unique. The fact that Sigiriya is a real Seid, exactly the same, which are found on the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and other areas. Only this Seid huge. Monolith weighing at least 2500 tons, delivered on props from small stones.
On the left of the image, we just see these stones, which relies on a huge boulder. To backup has not gone out of stone dumped here "car solution" and propped them bearing support.
Very well seen, as viscous stone weight wrapped around the stones under the monolith. This photo takes all questions and unambiguously says that the stone was liquid.
And finally another photo, just put you in a stupor. The image is perfectly visible that masonry is simply filled with liquid rock. Here already I would not say that the bricks were laid.
In this part, we looked at the objects, which, most likely, was treated with "rough" machine that can melt large volumes, but not fitted to do fine things. Therefore, in the next part we will consider small architectural forms Sigiriya, which were made with the help soften stone.
All photos used in this article comes from website A. C. Koltypin dopotopa.com