Timofeeva A. A, PCHD, 8/30/2006.

 Here the electronic (more detailed) variant of Timofeeva A.A article   is resulted: «Whether the pyramid of Cheops could  serve for communication with space? », published in magazine" Telecommunication ",№1, 2007

Table of contents:


Last years to  the solution  of Cheops  pyramid  secret  which does not give rest already   for a long time  to many of scientists  began to connect experts in the antenna technics. The thought about  that  Cheops pyramid  could serve for communication with space, personally for  me has came somewhere in the mid-nineties of  the last century now. And then it  seemed to me absolutely new. However,  with time  it was found  that similar idea (in this or that kind) state already many scientists and number of  radio engineering  supporters of Сheops  pyramid  increases every day. About that  the artificial and natural formations do  not name antennas are capable to act in their quality  is told shortly in [1] and  more detailed in [2]. To such constructions refer , probably,   Cheops pyramid. But whether it could  serve,  how believe some scientists for communication with space? To search of the answer to this question from the point of view stated in [1], [2], this  work is devoted, based on the information collected from different sources ([3] - [7], etc.) and allowing to look at  Cheops pyramid  from radio engineering positions.

Complex of Giza pyramids

In a complex  of Giza pyramids , located near to Nile on the stony plateau in height of 40 m, enter three big pyramids:  Mycerinus,  Chefren and Cheops . Modern  height of these pyramids ( up to the top area) is [3] about 62 m, 136, 5 m and 137,5 m, accordingly.

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEThe pyramid of Mycerinus is  smallest of three pyramids, stands on the artificial  terrace from calcareous blocks. The side  of its square basis is equal to108 m, initial height ( up to geometrical top) is 66,5 m,   slope angle of borders  is 51 degrees The bottom part of this pyramid is revetted with  granite blocks. It is considered that such blocks covered the pyramid almost on third of its height, then there were blocks from limestone, and then again from  granite. The pyramid of Mikerinus has one chamber in height of 3,5 m with the basis  6,5 х 2,3 m, cut down in rocky more lower of the base. Chamber walls are executed from the ground granite. In this chamber earlier there was a basalt sarcophagus with a wooden cover, which subsequently has  sunk during transportation.

Pyramid of Chefren in the sizes almost  the same, as well as the pyramid of Cheops. The  side  of its square basis  is equal  to 214,5 m, initial height ( up to the geometrical top) is 143,5 m,  slope angle  of borders is 53° 12 ’. Pyramid facing (above is from white limestone, and below is  from  granite) has partially remained. This pyramid has two entrance located on  the north side. One  entrance is in  height of 15 m, and another at basis level. The top entrance  leads  to the big  chamber in height of 6,8 m, with  length (east-west) of 14,2 m,  with width (the north - the south)  of 5 m.

The chamber itself is cut out   in  the  rock  and a vaulted ceiling goes to  the stone laying of the pyramid. In the chamber there is an empty sarcophagus with the broken cover, made of  ground granite. The bottom entrance  which has been found  in 818 year [4], had a plug from three granite blocks. It led to the small chamber, which, proceeding from  inscription on the  wall  was visited  earlier. In this chamber there was an empty sarcophagus.

 The pyramid of Cheops which  is named also Great  is the most mysterious  one among pyramids not only of the given complex, but also among all known pyramids of the terrestrial globe. Inherently organization  of this pyramid in comparison with other  ones is considerably more complex  and concerning its appointment the most different hypotheses were put forward, including ( lately)  radio engineering.

The general description of  Cheops  pyramid

 External surface of the pyramid (in its modern type), fig. 1, is stepped, laid out with tiers from huge blocks, which were exposed  to considerable destruction with  time. But earlier (according to  the memoirs of eyewitnesses which have reached to  our epoch ) the surface of borders of the  pyramid was ideally smooth and sparkled brightly in the sun. However these memoirs are  conflicting concerning the form  of the pyramid surface  [4].

According to  one data the surface of its borders was ideally smooth, and to another ones it was stepped.  Modern Egyptologists (after that when  some facing blocks near to the  pyramid and in its  bottom were found  ) believe that initially the pyramid had smooth borders and was  revetted with  the polished blocks from limestone.

The found facing blocks ( in height 1,5 m, length 3,7 m and width 2,4) were executed with huge accuracy and the inclination of their ideally ground border is equal 51о 51 ’, i.e. to within a minute coincides with  slope angle of  the  pyramid borders. If the pyramid was  revetted with  such blocks, its borders   really were  ideally smooth and could reflect the sunlight perfectly.

However to do unequivocal conclusions about initial facing of all pyramid on the basis only these finds  most likelihood  is impossible, all the more  facing pyramids of Mikerin and Chefren  is executed on  different height from different materials, including not only calcareous blocks, but also granite that can be far not casual.

As the pyramid substratum   more often  main  rock is called, which partially comes into the  pyramid. But here and there about granite plate is mentioned   and very carefully at that levelled and ground  and in [4]  is told about original initial paving which «… is well laid and  fine  is processed, and under the  construction … it is executed with even more accuracy and  is finished to the most perfect level of execution ».

Whether there is the horizontal plate under the pyramid ? And if  it is from what material it is made? What  is its surface? In what (on structure) rock the underground chamber is cut through? The answer to this and many other questions at consideration of the  pyramid from the radio engineering point of view has great importance.

The basic features of the Cheops pyramid  are absolutely improbable accuracy of execution and inexplicable (while  "strangenesses" [4] unusual influence on alive organisms and substances.

Jewellery accuracy of the pyramid execution  in whole and its elements separately considering pyramid scales  causes extreme amazement even among  the modern builders and scientists. The secret not opened till now are also technologies, used in  its construction. As to "strangenesses" for an example it is possible to name following ones [4]. On the  pyramid top effects similar to the big concentration of electromagnetic fields are observed. Remains of small animals which wandered into  its top chamber became mummified  (were dehydrated  despite of  presence  humidity  in the pyramid). The similar effect was observed  in wooden model of the  pyramid with the basis of 0,9 m, focused precisely to  the north  when in its inside  on the third level in the  direction upwards  the died cat has been placed. Milk  packaged in pyramidal cardboard packings   remained fresh without  refrigerator for a long time Such packings [4] have been patented in France. In cardboard model of the  pyramid in height of ~15 sm with orientation to the north edges of razors  automatically  are sharpened. Patent in Czechoslovakia [4]  has been  got on this base  ( similar devices are made from  polyfoam). These "strangenesses" usually connect with the form of the pyramid. In the pyramid other unusual phenomena [3] are observed also.

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEPyramid of Cheops (fig. 2) is the pyramidal cone with the truncated top ( the initial contour of the pyramid with dotted line and modern one with  continuous line  is designated). Initially height of the  pyramid ( up to the geometrical top) was equal to 146,6 … 147 m, and the size of its flat horizontal platform [7]  is 2,4х2,4 m. The pyramid basis is the square with the side  of ~230,3 m, and the borders inclined at an angle 51° 52 ’ are orientated to the  parts of the world and are bent [4] approximately on 1 m. The internal organization  of the pyramid  which scheme of  arrangement in the  plane the south-north is shown on fig. 2,  may be   subdivide into following groups:

 Entrance and the basic corridors: an initial entrance (E); a descending corridor (DC); horizontal bottom corridor (НBC); a horizontal deadlock corridor (HDC); ascending corridor (AC) with granite "plugs" (GP) and surrounding stones (SS); horizontal corridor (HC); mine-well (MW). Connection DC and AC is shown on leader  II, where granite plugs and  hypothetical reservoir (or replacing it prismatic stone) about which it will be told lower  are blackened.

 Chambers: the chamber of the bottom level (ChBL), named sometimes the underground chamber is shown  on leader  I, the chamber-grotto (CрG) , the average level chamber (ALCh), named often the chamber of the tsarina. The big gallery (BG); the chamber-lobby (ChL), named also the prechamber or the antichamber; the top level chamber (TLCh), named often the chamber tsar; small chambers, named sometimes  as unloading, will be called here as resonant chambers (RC), because  in their area there is very strong sound resonance. Three basic chambers: ChBL,  (ALCh),  and TLCh are grouped near to the pyramid axis (PA) within several metres. Near to the axis there is also top (southern) end of BG. It is most removed from the ChG axis, but only in the  plane the south-north, in the plane the east-цest it  is located almost on  pyramid. axis

Mines: northern and southern, opened (ОNM and ОSM), having  exit on the surface; and closed (CNM and CSM), not having. exit on the surface . In other pyramids such there are no mines .Open mines now are named  ventilating, as in the present time they serve for this purpose, and concerning their true appointment the most different hypotheses and assumptions are put forward.Basic elements of the pyramid  about which it was possible to collect the fullest information, are shown on fig. 3.
WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACESight in two planes on TLCh where there is a sarcophagus (S) and "hole" (H), and also on RC, located over TLCh,  is given in the left corner (from above). ALCh is shown below, where on the left in the increased scale sight is given  to its east wall in which there is  a niche (N), and on the right  of ALCh is shown as a part of the central complex. Central  complex (all its elements are given in identical scale) is the most difficult  organization of Cheops pyramid and about its appointment continue the never-ending discussions. Into it enter: TLCh, five RC (RC-1, RC-2, RC-3, RC-4, RC-5),   ChL, with its corridors (SC and NC), and also BG, connected with  (ALCh), by means of HC.  In the right corner (from above)  is given (in an axonometry) sight on BG (on its northern wall - NBG), and to the left of it the step (SТ) which as  is told in [4], there is  in the top part of  DC. The step on the entrance to  ALCh, designated also SТ, has, probably, the same sight. More in detail about pyramid basic elements it will be told lower.

Hypotheses about appointment  of  Heops pyramid

Concerning appointment of Cheops pyramid  there are many  the most different hypotheses. One of the earliest  ones considered Egyptian (and others) pyramids as tombs, whence names have gone: the chamber of the tsar (pharaoh) and the chamber of the tsarina. However, according to the opinion of many modern scientists-Egyptologists Cheops pyramid  as a tomb  was not used, and had absolutely other appointment.

Some Egyptologists believe that the pyramid is storehouse of standards ancient measures and scales, and also model of known linear and time measurements, which are characteristic for the Earth and are based on the principle a polar axis  rotation. It is considered confirmed that that (or those) who supervised over pyramid building, possessed absolutely exact knowledge of such things which have been opened by mankind much later.  Length of a globe circle , a longitude of the year, an average value of the Earth  orbit at its rotation around the sun, concrete of the globe density, 26 000 cycles of equinoxes, acceleration of gravity, velocity of light and many other things refer to them.  All this knowledge, anyhow, is put, ostensibly, in the pyramid. There is  an opinion that the pyramid represents an original calendar.

It is almost proved that it serves both a theodolite, and a compass,  such accuracy, that  it is possible with it to verify the most  advanced compasses. One more hypothesis believes [4], that not only in parametres of the pyramid, but also in its separate structures  are  put many of important mathematical values  and correlations, for example, number «», and parametres TLCh(chamber of the tsar) unite "sacred" triangles with the sides 3-4-5.

It is considered that corners and angular factors of the pyramid reflect the most  advanced representations about trigonometrical values, and contours of the  pyramid with  the practical accuracy include proportions of the  "golden section" rule.  Many hypotheses put forward  about technology of  the pyramid building  as even  at using of   modern building equipment to construct such grandiose construction with that accuracy with  which it has been constructed,  is not obviously possible. Almost fantastic, absolutely new, "resonance",  hypothesis about "technology" of  Egyptian pyramids buildings   (and not only of them) is resulted in [2], where in the section «We - resonators and our resonance» (a part 2 - «We and the World») are considered in the united interconnections:  resonance, building of the Egyptian pyramids, movement of giants of Easter island and management with internal energy.

For the further consideration of Cheops pyramid with  offered  point  of view in this work from early hypotheses the most interesting  atre two ones [4]. One of them considers  Cheops pyramid  as an astronomical observatory. Thus it is supposed that on crossing DC and AC (see leader II on fig. 2) was artificial reservoir ( in drawing  it is blacked out) which served as a mirror, reflecting light of a pole star passing through an entrance. According to the other hypothesis Cheops pyramid  was used for dedication to the higher steps of secret knowledge, and also for storage of this knowledge. Thus the person devoted in secret knowledge, settled down in a sarcophagus.

Radio engineering hypotheses, more truly, assumptions [3], etc.), offering to look at the pyramid as on the antenna used for communication with space, are  the "youngest" and the least worked that  is possible to explain with information lack (its small volume and disconnectedness), allowing to look at Cheops pyramid  from these positions. And this in its turn, is a consequence of that radio engineering hypotheses have been put forward after end of the basic researches of the pyramid, and therefore among researchers there were no the corresponding experts, capable to  engaged with  gathering of the necessary information.

The information resulted in given work collected by particles from  different sources, gives the chance to consider Cheops pyramid   with radio engineering positions in more details and to draw   attention of experts of the necessary profile to it.

These experts can find if it is possible, to its separate  constructive elements the closest analogues from  already known radio engineering devices and develop their own opinion  whether could Cheops pyramid  serve for communication with space. One of such attempts also is made in  this work. And though it has appeared the collected information is insufficiently so that firmly to answer the question which has been taken out in the title of the article, but it is possible to make some preliminary conclusions nevertheless.

 Radio engineering sight at the pyramid

 The description of Cheops pyramid  resulted in many sources if it to "translate" on radio engineering language, rather reminds the description of compound radio engineering complex. Separate elements of this complex can be considered as waveguides, resonators, antennas  of different types, etc. In the subsequent sections of the given work for basic elementsof of the  pyramid the closest analogues from number of typical radio engineering devices will be selected. In the  basis of search of these analogues on the first stage as it is offered in [1] and [2], the form (design) is put. On the second  staget the sizes of the device allowing, at least approximately to define it possible working range is put also. On the third stage conformity of  considered element to the requirements shown to similar  in form and the size typical the radio engineering analogue working in the same wave range, in particular, to requirements on properties of  material and quality of processing of the working surface, which depend on not the form but from length of the working wave. First two stages are the easiest, as the information necessary for it basically already is available, that  is impossible to tell about the third stage.

Radio engineering properties of the concrete materials used in pyramid building, nobody and never investigated yet  , as far as it is known to the author as, however, nobody tried to define  the possible working range of the  pyramid as radio engineering device. There is no also a trustworthy information about initial quality of processing  internal (working) surface of the majority of corridors, mines and  chambers of the pyramid .  Considering that Cheops pyramid  is rather ancient  construction, its condition  today, naturally, is much worse which  it had in the times of its "youth". Besides, during 4,5 thousand years of its existencethe pyramid was exposed  not only to natural influences, including earthquakes, but also to attacks of numerous treasure hunters and researchers.

The first ones from mercenary  and second from the best promptings  made in it different cut and underminings  and also cleaned its corridors and mines, without caring, frequently, about preservation of their initial condition. All  this is necessary to take in account doing those or others conclusions.

At the third stage (at least  for a while) it is possible to build assumptions only, being guided with indirect knowledge, logic conclusions, and also orientating (regarding quality of processing of working surfaces) to memoirs eyewitnesses of those times when the pyramid was in rather good condition.

Using  the crystal substances in the pyramid.

 The Cheops pyramid is based upon native rock more dense in comparison with the surrounding one. As its basic building material  they name  artificial  made calcareous blocks, but in [5] they are named sandstone that can be caused  with discrepancy of translation (further these blocks will be called as calcareous, but their structure, as well as  of other materials of the pyramid, demands specification). In pyramid building sand,  granite and  also and even salt were used. All these materials have rather complex structure and different dielectric permeability. The general for them is the content of crystal substances, in particular, quartz, mica, etc. which part is widely applied in  radio engineering. But as radio engineering researches of building materials of the pyramid in its possible working range  did not carry out  the lower  are shown  only  general data on structure and properties of  materials used the the pyramid. Limestone which is the basic building material of the pyramid, sedimentary  rock consisting mainly from calcite seldom from aragonite, often with  impurity of dolomite, clay and sandy particles.

Aragonite is  the mineral of carbonates class of , forms different colour needle crystals and branchy units. Calcite  (limy spar)  is class carbonates mineral.

Carbonate rock.  Rock consisting of  carbonates of calcium, magnesium, iron.

In the pyramid from limestone blocks  is laid out, as believe, its basic body. From the polished limestone having very smooth and firm surface, are made ceiling and walls of the chamber of the average level (ALCh), the top part of the descending corridor (DC), the ceiling of the top resonance chamber (RC-1), top (up to the chamber-grotto) mine-well part (MW), bigger (or all)  surface of the big gallery (BG).

Presumably  the same was the surface of opened (ОMN and ОMS) and closed (CMN and CMS) mines and also all external surface of the pyramid. The top layer of the polished surfaces, including limestone, in radio engineering properties can  essentially  differ from properties of usual limestone, and not only in the range of the visible light. This question demands special research. It is necessary to define the  exact structure of that limestone (or sandstone) which is used for pyramid buildings.

Sand. Sand  fine-fragmental the friable sedimentary rock consisting  of not less than  50 % from particles of quartz, field spars and other minerals and fragments of mountain rocks. Dielectric permeability of the sand depending on rock and humidity can fluctuate in very big limits: from 2 to 25 (for damp sand), and for usual dry sand it is equal to approximately 4. Sand is the basic component of block materials  from which the pyramid body is made. Besides,  with some  unusual sand possessing in any range with strong shielding properties, are filled 3 cavities (one from them has  sizes ~ 30х6х5, located under ALCh. Probably, that inside of the pyramids there are  also other similar sandy cavities. The sand filling these cavities, (even, ostensibly, sifted) has special structure. In one of the  large cavities with  raying in sand certain heterogeneous matters are found but to identify them  was not possible. It is known also that some sands possess rather unusual and   not solved property.     They in  moving ("shock" pressure) are capable to sound,  to radiate waves of sound range.

It is considered, that sounding (singing, hooting, whistling) sands  are coastal sands and sands of deserts, and by all means  dry ones. It, probably, is connected with that dielectric permeability of dry and damp sand differs. very strongly.

Singing sands, as a rule, are  very pure. They usually consist of particles of quartz and almost do not contain impurities. As the exception they name sounding sand of islands Kauais and Niihau consisting of calcium carbonate  in diameter about 0,5 mm. Particles of the sounding sand are roundish (experimentally it was possible, however, to achieve buzz  cubic crystals of table  salt) and have approximately the identical size. Particles  of sand are cut with  the thin channel, opened from one end (i.e. by design they  are similar to spherical resonators). Are known not only singing sands but also singing mountains. For example, mountain Kalkan (height 300) in Kazakhstan it is some kind of natural organ. It at  wind and at descent from it  the person gives melodious sounds, but only in dry weather,and after the  rain it  keeps silence.

Now the quantity of sounding sand is sharply reduced that  is connected with environmental contamination.

It is not excluded, that  in the pyramid have been used not only shielding, but also "singing" properties of the sand capable, probably to serve as the generator and/or the converter of waves and/or the original modulator (demodulator).

Granite is the holocrystalline magmatic rock consisting of   mainly from quartz, potassium feldspar, mica and other components. Mica are  plane crystals, the scaly  masses spliting  on  the most thin  leaflets possessing with high dielectric properties and thermal stability.

It is known that the micas, equal approximately 6 … 7, with growth of frequency from 200 Hz to 10 кHz decreases together with the tangent of anglelosses.

In the  pyramid the top level chamber (TLCh) and partially the chamber-lobby (ChL). is faced completely with  granite.   From granite, basically, resonance chambers (RC) are executed also. Probably (by analogy with  pyramids of Mikerinus and Chefren),  granitic  was also  part of external facing of the pyramid. Three "plugs" are made of  granite (GP) also, located on entrance in AC (three granite "plugs" as it  already was  told, have been found and on the entrance of one corridors of  Chefren pyramid).

The assumption occurring for  long years that these "plugs" were  made so that  to exclude possibility of penetration in the pyramid of the undesirable visitors is represented rather and rather disputable. With aims of protection against the similar intrusions it would be more reliable to use calcareous facing blocks, with  which all top area DC is revetted, including  that its part, where branches off AC. It would allow not only to block the entrance in this corridor, as it was made with GP, but also completely  to disguise it. Granitic blocks, on the contrary, draw  attentionto  to them  at once. Therefore it is more probable that appointment of these blocks is absolutely another.

From granite has (presumably) been made prismatic  stone which was found  in the Middle Ages in descending corridor directly under GP. Besides,  granitic  block of unknown appointment  there is  in the chamber-grotto (ChG).

As MW, going from BG to ChG, and then to DC, as well as ChG itself  were exposed to numerous destructive actions of different treasure hunters and researchers,  now it is impossible to receive trustworthy information neither about the initial position of this granitic stone,  nor about the initial form of the grotto. However, if it will be developed  accurate enough and authentic radio engineering version about the pyramidthe,  most likely, it will be possible  with enough big  degree  of probability to restore all initial design of  grotto, and also to define in it  place and appointment of this granitic stone.

Quite probably that GP and the granitic block, containing the big percent of quartz and other crystal substances, could have the same appointment, as quartz (and others crystal) the substances  which are using in modern radio engineering devices. For the radio engineering purposes could be used also prismatic stone. This stone could quite replace  hypothetical reservoir ( see fig. 2 - II ).

Now the granite is considered as  usual building material and in  radio engineering purposes it is not applied, in spite of the fact that there are  big percent of the quartz widely used in radio engineering. But it does not mean at all  that it cannot be used for the same purposes in any ranges of waves. Therefore, it shoukd like to investigate  granite from the radio engineering point of view, in possible working range of the pyramid which will be presumably define lower.

Quartz which is the part of all materials of the pyramid, has hexagonal and trigonal modification.  It forms different colour of particles, granular crystals, aggregates and continuous masses. Rock crystal, amethyst,  topaz consists of quartz and other minerals. Quartz is widely applied in radio engineering as possesses with many remarkable properties, including bright expressed direct and reverse piezoelectric effect. This effect is used in the piezoelectric converters of mechanical and acoustic vibrations in electric, and back. Resonators, generators, modulators and others radio engineering  devices are known which  use unique properties of quartz and other crystal substances are known   Salts (stone; seignette table  salt) are crystal substances. Unusual properties of  seignette salt are known for a long time, and table salt (sodium chloride, colourless crystals) possesses, as it is known, rather various and unusual properties, including  such which are used in medicine for treatments, and in  everyday life, for preservation of products. Besides, recently the new unusual ("laser") properties of table  salt have been found .

According to mass-media, the group of researchers  one of the american laboratories has found , that under the influence of a shock wave crystals of dielectric are capable to radiate the coherent ("co-ordinated") light, which unique source before lasers were considered. A source of coherent radiation in a range of frequencies from 1 to100 terahertz that corresponds to  infra-red part of  spectrum, it has appeared (even at  simple stirring) usual table  salt.

Salt (presumably table ) covers walls and ceiling  of ALCh, and also  ceiling  of RC-5. About appointment of the salt covering it was not possible to find any assumption. But, considering that crystal substances are widely used in radio engineering and  laser technics, and also taking into account the new ("laser") effect which has been found  for table  salt, such covering can be quite include in athe pyramid, if it  consider as the radio engineering device.

Corridors and mines as waveguide of  pyramid system 

As it is known, waveguides of electromagnetic waves WEW (generally) are directing systems (rectilinear or bent), which lateral surfaces are  border of boundary wave, at transition through which changes dielectric or magnetic permeability and electroconductivity  , in the final result  throughput, reflecting and absorbing properties change. Therefore waveguides can be both metal, and dielectric. Typical  elements of waveguides have usually rectangular, round, elliptic, P-shaped or N-shaped cross-section though, basically, their section can be any. As waveguides can act and two parallel (or smoothly and equally bent)  surfaces which do not have lateral walls. Joined waveguides (the directed branches of waveguides and bridges) can be located relatively each other under different angles, including a right angle.

All corridors and  mines of the pyramid quite satisfy to the general specified above  requirements produced to waveguides as their walls are border of  of boundary wave differ on the radio engineering properties. Therefore (at presence of corresponding energy) they can act  as  hollow rectangular waveguides, capable to direct WEW which length is less  doubled value of their wide wall. From the short waves a working range of hollow waveguides  is limited to not so much with properties of  material, from which they are made, but  admissible size of heterogeneity of their working surface, i.e. with quality of processing.

For waveguides with small thermal losses the size of heterogeneities should not  exceed 1/32 ( length of  wave). However and at much more  size of heterogeneities  waveguides will execute all the same directing functions, though  with  big thermal losses. Pyramid corridors (DC, HBC,  HDC,AC, ChG and MW) are directed from the north to the south. An initial entrance  (E) ( see fig. 2 as believe  has initially been closed up flush  with stone door strengthened on hinges. The entrance which is used now as basic was made [4] in 800-s' years AD when al-Mamun (and its retinue), without having found the initial entrance  penetrate  into the pyramid, having cut through the new input located  lower of  initial DC from entrance  (E) goes downwards at an angle 26,3°. In the top part of  DC there is a fall in the form of the step in height of ~0,6 m. At the level ~ 46 m lower of the base of pyramid DC passes in HBC and enters in ChBL behind which begins the HDC coming to an end with a blank wall. AC move away from DC upwards and has equal with DC angle of  inclination (~26,3°). The top end  of AC passes (along the line of the floor) in the big gallery (BG), and changing the direction on horizontal, passes  in HC. In average part of  AC there are three surrounding stone (SS) about which more detailed data were not possible to find. In the bottom part of  AC three granite plugs (GP)  are located in total length 5m., about which it was already mentioned. Behind them initially there were some more calcareous plugs. Arabs, [4] could not neither split, nor displace the granite plugs found  by them, therefore they began to cut through passage near to them. But behind the first one the second one was found , and for the second  the third one, and behind the third there was entrance blocked by plugs from limestone. And such  calcareous plugs were  a few. Exactly under plugs (in junction of  AC with DC) also was found  prismatic stone (presumably granitic), about which it was already mentioned. This stone, unfortunately, did not remained, and  it was not possible to find any data about  it. Therefore about its appointment now it is possible only to guess. According to [4], the Arabs who  found prismatic stone decided that it had fallen from  the ceiling  of DC where it was  earlier  a butt  part  of big rectangular  granite stone of unusual black-red colour which, according to  their opinion, served as densely ground  plug (stopper) AC. However it could lie initially under GP, carrying out absolutely certain role, for example, to reflect the part of energy, going from the entrance and/or from ChBL, in AC.

The mine-well (MW) begins in the bottom part of BG  in the  place of its joining with AC and with HC.

It at first goes almost vertically downwards, as has defined its name, then it is  bent a little and passes in ChG. After ChG the mine gets through the radical rock  and join DC.

The top part of DC (~40) is executed from blocks  of white very carefully polished limestone and has absolutely direct borders. Walls,  floor and  ceiling

AC and HC are executed  from the polished limestone, but borders of HC are processed (presumably) less carefully. The top part of MW ( up to CG) is revetted rather well processed calcareous blocks, and lower a grotto facing is irregular and twisting, including blocks with sharp angles. The exact information about material and initial quality of surface processing  HLC, HDC and also the bottom part DC and MW  was not possible to find. It was known, however, that in the Middle Ages they were cleaned  more truly, are almost punched anew. It, naturally, could destroy (partially or completely) their initial facing.

The sizes of waveguides-corridors. The entrance to the pyramid in width of ~1,05 m is located on northern border, at height of ~15 m and in ~7 metres to the east from its axis. Section of DC and HBC is  rectangle, and HDC is approximately square. Height of DC  is equal to~1,2 m, width ~1,05 m, length of ~105 m. Height of  HBC - ~0,9, width of ~0,8 m, length ~ 6 m. Height and width of HDC - ~0,7 … 0,8 m, length ~ 16 m. Distance from the entrance to blank wall HDC~140 m. Section AC is  rectangle in height ~1, 2 m, width ~1,05 m, and its length is equal ~40 m.The height of top end of AC  at pass in BG  changes stepwise on ~7,3 m, reaching the general height of ~8,6 m. Height of HC it is equal to~1,2 m, width - ~1,05 m. Before the ALCh (after a step in height ~0,52) height of HC  increases in discrete steps to ~1,7 m. The length of this, higharea is equal to ~5,5 m, total lengthin  of all HC ~40 m. Width of MW on all extent of ~0,9 m.

 Pyramid mines (the closed CMN and CMS, not having an exit to outside, and opened OMN and OMS, having the  exit  to outside ) with  section ~0,22х0,22 m, move away from northern and southern walls ALCh and TLCh. At first mines go horizontally, then rise upwards, and northern mines bend around of BG. A direction and length of the closed mines, in contrast to  opened, on fig. 2  is shown rather conditionally. OMS goes to the south at an angle ~45° concerning  horizontal, and ОMN, bending around BG, goes then at an angle ~32,5°. Exits of these mines are located precisely opposite each other.

Walls of all mines now is (presumably) the pyramid body, i.e. limestone.  There are no of exact data about initial processing of the surface  of mines   opened  long ago. And the surface of CMS sections  opened recently, to which it  was not  access earlier is smooth. It is possible to assume that not less smooth (originally) there was the surface and all others (opened earlier) plots of all mines. And their present condition is a result not only of time influence but also rough procleanings  Proceeding from quality of  internal surface of mines  today, especially the opened ones not  any conclusions about that what their surface was initially to do  is impossible, as, having the exit on the surface these mines were most strongly subjected to influence of atmospheric (and others) influences, including penetration of  small animal and different extraneous subjects in them. It  led to that in the moment of their detection they have been filled with any "garbage", and then cleaned rather  "barbarous" way (with the method of chimneys) that has for certain brought their surface additional and rather strong damage.
Feature of the closed mines is presence of partitions with  thickness ~0,13 m, which, unlike open mines  initially separated these mines from the chamber, and also presence in CMS  sections which have been restricted with fence from each other with  partitions. It is known, that the end before investigated by means of robots of CMS has appeared closed with «door» with metal designs behind which one more "room" was found  which also has ended with the wall. More detailed data about this "room"  was not possible to find. In september, 2005 has passed the information that researches of the southern mines will be continued, but new reports about  them did not appear yet. The working range of waveguides-corridors from long waves (proceeding from their cross-section section (1,2 m; 1,05 m; 0,8 … 0,9)  is limited with waves in length 1,6 … 2,4 m, and mines,  having section 0,22 with waves 0,44 m. Final  conclusions  about restriction of their working range from short waves to do while  is impossible.

But with  big enough degree of probability it is possible to assume that the working range of waveguides-corridors and the waveguides-mines having carefully polished surface and/or moving away from the chambers having such surface, could cover initially and waves of  light range. For example,it is  logically to assume that corridors and the mines adjoining  the chambers, having more careful processing of the internal surface, were also  initially processed not less carefully. The internal surface polished to mirror shine actually up to now has kept (thanks to durability of  granite)  TLCh. Therefore and moving away from TLCh  mines (OMS and ОMN), most likely, had initially polished walls. And the polished surface, including the surface of  black granite,  is capable to reflect waves even of light range.  Just through these mines could  be carried out communication of this chamber with external borders of the pyramid, which, as will be  shown  lower, could work as  horn-lens antennas. It is quite obvious that the internal surface of all (or the majority) other corridors and mines was initially more smooth, than now. It  is indirectly proved  with good, even now, quality of  internal surface of distant plot of  closed mine (CMS) which was found  and investigated with  robots quite recently. Then it the time of pyramids, 4,5 thousand years ago, the surface not only this plot, but also all mine could be better quality, as for the past millenia it, naturally, "has grown old", as limestone less stable than  granite, and therefore is more subjected to destruction with  time. It is possible also to assume that the mines having smaller (in comparison with corridors)  size of cross-section  most likely, were  initially processed better  then corridors, and therefore, could work on much shorter (in comparison with corridors) lengths of waves not only because of the smaller sizes of their cross-section  but also thanks to  better (presumably) processing. It is known also that  with very good  quality of processing of  internal surface the top part of  descending corridor (DC) amazed medieval visitors and though its material also is not granite, but limestone. Having entered quite real suppositions and assumptions, it is possible to consider that  hypothetical working range of  pyramid systems of waveguide enveloped waves, beginning from the metre range to waves of  light range, inclusive, or even shorter. Feature of wave guides-corridors consists in that (see fig. 2 ) that they represent the general network, which unites all chambers of the pyramid in uniform system. Thus a way to them from DC almost everywhere is replicated   as average plot of  DC together with AC and MW form itself the closed triangular contour to which "are connected" all (known  today) chambers. They by means of this contour not only are connected among themselves, but also have (through DC) access to the pyramid entrance.

For TLCh and ALCh access to DC (and through it to ChBL and to entrance ) can be and through MW, and through AC, having GP. From ChBL the way to the entrance  can be as directly along  DC, and through two corridors: MW and AC, i. е again  through GP. Whether is such duplication of ways special or casual, it is necessary to find  hereinafter to supporters of radio engineering hypotheses, in particular, to the experts who are engaged with design of radio engineering systems as a whole.

Pyramid chambers as resonators

As it is known with properties of the electromagnetic volume resonator, generally, possesses any area of space of free form, limited  with  casing  with  good reflecting properties. Inside of  this casing can arise resonance on infinite multitude of frequencies (lengths of waves), coinciding with  own  frequencies defining with size and  form of the resonator. The elementary volume resonators WEW are hollow wave- guides, including  rectangular waveguide, and other systems executed on their base. Resonators can be not only closed, but also opened, representing system from two (and more) of  flat resisting mirrors which reflect to each other WEW. All  sizes of opened resonators are  much   bigger of wave length . Mirrors of resonators place either  in free space, or between them put open waveguide, for example, the dielectric one. The last is most typical for the open resonators working in  light range which mirrors make usually from several alternating layers (mainly quarter wave) dielectrics with small values of dielectric permeability. For excitation of volume resonators (closed and opened), including waveguides, use different elements of communication, including chinks (aperture). As the resonator can serve and  dielectric body located in less dense medium if conditions of almost full reflexion from its border are executed . Such resonators today  are applied basically in the technician of quantum generators, but, basically, similar resonators can be used in the generators intended for work  on longer waves. As volume resonators it is possible to consider all chambers of the  pyramid, including RC, as dielectric  GP and  granite block, as "mirror", probably,  sections of CMS.

The chamber of the bottom level and the chamber-grotto (ChBL and ChG), see fig. 2, are cut down in the radical ground. The chamber of the bottom level (ChBL) by data for today  consists  (see leader I), of  several, connected in a single whole,  chambers located on the different levels. Ceiling of ChBL  is rather smooth, and a floor is executed in kind of  roughly  processed stones. Appointment  of ChBL is till now the subject of scientific disputes. It is considered that this chamber is not finished, as has no that careful trimming , with which two top chambers amaze. However it is necessary to mean, that exactly to  this chamber goes DC which directly is joined   entrance in the pyramid and as far as it is known, unlike AC, had no plugs i.e. passage to  this chamber was the most accessible. About early visitings of the bottom chamber say and numerous traces of  soot from the torches, found  in the Middle Ages. Therefore it is quite probably that initially this chamber was finished much better and represented the difficult ordered complex, and was destroyed by hunters for treasures just as was caused a huge damage and to ascending corridor, and to other chambers of Cheops pyramid .  However "authors" of later destructions, using even dynamite, unlike earlier adventurers, are known. It is known  the damage caused by them and the changes brought in  design of the pyramid by  its earlier visitors, are unknown to anybody.

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEThe sizes of ChBL: length (east-west) of ~9,5 m; width (south-north) ~ 8,2 m; height (from the ceiling to the floor of the lowermost level) ~3.5 m. In the central part of the floor is  square aperture, is not known when and whom punched which in 1838 had depth of ~3,7 m, and it was  even more deepened later. In the western part of the floor [5] the eminence is observed  , having some of high grooves, directed from the east to the west divided with  deep "valleys", and in the western wall there  is small deepening . However it is absolutely not clear, whether the chamber possessed these features initially or they  appeared as a result of activity of more its later visitors. The Chamber-grotto (ChG) [4] shown on fig. 4 (in the plan it is  on  the left, aside it is   on the right), now  it has the complex and wrong form.

The information about  the original form and the sizes of ChG and ChBL, and also about quality of processings of their internal surfaces  probably, it is already impossible to receive These chambers (because of the easiest access to them) had undergone, as was told, to  the greatest number of attacks of different adventurers which cleared away them from blockages also cut through (in search of a treasure) the  new emptiness,  not enough caring of safety of their original form. However it is necessary to pay attention to the granitic block, located now on entrance of ChG which, for certain, is here since  construction. Its appointment can coincide with appointment of GP and be defined with granite special characteristics, more truly, entering into it quartz and others crystal substances.

Working range ChBLand ChG, proceeding from the size of wave guides-corridors adjoining  them and (presumably) of rather rough initial processing of surfaces  was limited, most likely, metre WEW and/or waves of other kind, for example,  sound. The average level chamber (ALCh), see fig. 3, has almost cubic  form with two sloping   isosceles roof. Its ceiling and walls are executed from carefully polished calcareous blocks and  are covered with  layer of salt in the thickness ~1,3  sm, and the floor is paved with  roughly squared stones. The stepped  niche (N), see fig. 3, on  the left, consists of 5 sections. From this chamber goes away HC and the closed mines (CMN and CMS) which are (on height) at level of the upper edge of the bottom section of the niche (the  ceiling of HC). The sizes ALCh: length (east-west) of ~5,7 m; width (north-south) of ~5,2 m; height in the highest point of ~6,2 m, and in the lowest of ~4,7 m; height of the arch of ~1,5 m. the sizes of niche: height ~ 4,7 m; initial depth (east-west) of ~1,04 m; width (north-south) in the bottom of ~1,6 m, at the top of ~0,52 m. ALCh and its niche can serve as resonators-amplifier for WEW with length of some metres and  shorter. As generator of these waves  is capable to act and the person if  to place  him into the niche thus  that his head («driving generator») took place in  this or that its section. About the concrete appointment of  salt covering of the chamber it is possible to build different assumptions, based now and on "laser" properties of salt. Working range ALCh, considering the presence of mines with  section ~0,22 of m and high quality of surfaces processing  , from  high frequencies  should be limited with  shorter (in comparison with ChBL and ChG) waves, but it could not cover  waves of  light range, as its mines are  not the through.

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEThe top level chamber (TLCh) and a corridor adjoining it (SC), fig. 5 [4], in difference from all other chambers and pyramid corridors, are executed completely from granitic blocks, and very carefully driven to each other and perfectly polished. In this chamber, fig. 3 , there is "hole" (H) which goes out for limits of granitic facing, and also empty and without the  cover a sarcophagus (S), cut down from the firm granitic block saturated  with granules of feldspar, quartz and mica. The initial arrangement of the sarcophagus  precisely is not known, as it can be moved, but it is considered that initially it was in the western corner of  chambers as it is shown on fig. 5. Opened mines (OMN and ОMS), see fig. 2 and fig. 3, connect  TLCh  with  outside.

The sizes of TLCh: length (east-west) of ~10,5 m; width (north-south) of ~5,2 m; height ~5,9 m.  Sizes of the sarcophagus: length (north-south) of ~2,3 m; width of ~1 m; depth of ~1,05 m; thickness of the walls of ~0,15 m; a thickness of the bottom of ~0,18 m.  Edge bordering the top part of sarcophagus  has such  a form that the sliding cover could be placed there., but  there are any data about  it . Working range of TLCh , proceeding from its size, the size of its mines and adjoining it SC, and also taking into account of very high qualitie of processing of internal surfaces, could cover not only working  ranges of all other chambers-resonators, but also waves of  light range. If mines of TLCh were initially  polished with the same quality, as all chamber, they could serve as waveguides in  wave range shorter 0,44 m, including,  probably, and light ones. With the  body of the pyramid communication of this chamber could be realized either  mediately  (through wave guides-corridors and other chambers) or directly through the  "hole". Resonant chambers (RC), only 5 pieces, are located precisely over TLCh and  over each other   (fig. 3 see). The floor of all RC is made of  granitic blocks, and floor of  RC-1 is flat ceiling of TLCh, and the  floor of every following RC is  flat ceiling of  previous one  excluding RC-5 which has two sloping  roof (TSr), covered with  salt  from the inside  A ceiling surface of all RC (presumably) is even and smooth, and the floor has many stubs . The bottom chamber (RC-1), which often name  the chamber of  Devison was found  by him  in 1765. HE being on the  top of  BG,  paid attention that his   voice turns to peals of  numerous  echo, resounding somewhere above.

Inspecting the top (butt) part of the wall of BG, Devison  found  on its  top, where it  links up with the ceiling, an aperture and the narrow passaage leading to this chamber. Members of other expedition, scaring away bats, approximately in the same place  made some shots and were shook having heard repeatedly repeating  echo which  thundered as peals of  leaving thunder. Later over the first chamber four  more ones  were found located one over another. An initial passage to the top four chambers  was not revealed, and existing  one was made by  researchers of the  pyramid by means of explosions. Height of RC-1 is equal ~0,91 m. Information about height of emptiness,(and ledges)  of other RC  was not possible to find ,but if in [4] they are shown in identical with TLCh scale, height of emptiness of the bottom 4 chambers fluctuates in limits from 0,5 m to 1 m, and  the top one from 0,5 to 1,5 m.

From the radio engineering point of view system RC can serve as the resonant amplifier and/or  filter which is a component of a radiator-catcher of the pyramid, strengthening WEW and/or sound, bringing to RC from any chamber of the  pyramid. RC-5 (because of presence on its ceiling of  salt  layer ) can have more specific appointment.

The chamber-lobby (ChL), see fig. 3 and fig. 5, is situated between TLCh and BG. From them ChL separate short corridors: SC and NC, located from ChL from the southern and northern sides accordingly.  Material of all borders of  SC  is carefully polished granite (dark shading), NC is  limestone (light shading). The surface of all borders ChL and NC (presumably) was initially  very well processed and  polished. Northern wall of ChL  adjoining to NC, is made of limestone, but before it the granitic plate (GP), blocking average (on heigh) part the ChL is located. Ceiling and the bottom part of southern wall of  ChL are made of granite, and its top part, "window"  from limestone.

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEOn  the southern wall of ChL (under "window", over entrance in SC), fig. 6 [4], are located 4  vertical channels dividing it on 5 vertical strips of equal width. East and western walls (presumably calcareous) have rather complex in  form figured facing. The sizes  of ChL: height of ~3,8 m; width below (on the  floor) ~1,05 m, above (over facing) ~1,3 … 1,6 m; length of the  floor (general) of ~2,9 m, length of calcareous part of the  floor of ~0,3 m, granitic ~2,6 m.  Sizes of corridors: the cross-section  ~1,05х1,05 m; length NC ~1,3 m, SC ~2,6 m.  Sizes of the"window": ~0,3х1,5 m.

The sizes of vertical channels: width of ~0,1 m, depth of ~0,4 m, Figured facing in height ~2,6 … 2,8 m do not reach the ceiling on ~1 m. ChL can serve as additional resonator-amplifier for waves shorter.2,1 m and some kind of "switchboard" .

The part of the energy leaving through SC from TLCh, can (thanks to flat GP), reflect towards "window" , intercept with  two sloping roof (TSR) of  RC-5 and then to go aside of  RC and to the pyramid basis. And on the contrary, going from "window", reflect  aside of SC and to go in TChL. A part of energy of TChL, having passed through ChL and NC, can goin BG (or, on the contrary, from BG go in TLCh).

WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEThe big gallery (BG) is the greatest and the most complex internal of pyramid construction, occupying in it, probably, absolutely special position,  as it is almost directly connected with  waveguides-corridors with all pyramid chambers. BG it is executed from white limestone, has the stepped form,  see fig. 3, and its internal surface see (on memoirs of early eyewitnesses) was  well processed. The gallery is stretched from the north to the south with lifting ~26,3о.  In the top part, changing the direction on horizontal, it passes in NC, connecting it with ChL, and then (through SC) and with TLCh. To the bottom part  of BG approach HC. MW and AC connecting it  directly  with ALCh and HC, and through AC and DC or MW and DC  with ChBL and entrance.

On each lateral wall of  BG (approximately in middle of the height ) the channel  is made. Above  the southern wall of BG there is the passage  (P)  with width the ~0,6 m, leading to RC-1, and in the bottom of this wall  the entrance  in NC is located. Before the entrance  in NC fig. 7 [4],  stone step (platform) raises which partially blocks the top end  of BG This plate initially had, most likely, squared shape, but for the expired millenia, probably,  with efforts of numerous visitors  turned in  the . saddle-shaped one . Butt  walls of the gallery have the cross-section ledges which are continuation of ledges of lateral walls,  see fig 7 The gallery, see fig. 3 and fig. 8 [4],  narrows (concerning the widest section) with  several jumps upwards and with one jump downwards, forming below a narrow passage  which is continuation of AC.

 WHETHER THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS COULD SERVER FOR  COMMUNICATION WITH SPACEOn both sides  of passage  ledges (ramps) are located. In them along the base walls  orderly  (consistently and equally spaced) are made deepenings - cracks (C). In total there are 55 cracks (28 on  one hand  of gallerie and 27 on another one  where on the  crack place entrance in MW is located). Over cracks   the figured stones ( FK) are cut of  complex configuration, commensurable in the size with cracks.

The sizes of BG: length of ~47,8 m; height of ~8,6 m; width (over ramps) ~2,1 m; width of passage and a narrow part of the ceiling  ~1,05 m.  Sizes of ramps: width ~0,52, height ~0,53 m.  Sizes of cracks: width of ~0,15 m, length of ~0,52 m, depth of ~0,43 m.  Sizes of stepped  section: width of each of seven top ledges (towards the centre) ~7,6 sm, distance between ledges on  vertical ~ 0,7 … 0, 8 m (thus first, bottom the ledge is located at height of ~2,3 m from a ramp). The sizes of the platform: height of ~0,91 m, length (north-south) of ~1,7 m.

By the constructive device of  BG it is possible to consider as huge  resonant chamber, capable to work not only on WEW, but also on the sound ones. The last indirectly is confirmed  with  strong sound resonance arising in the passage area ( PA), and therefore in its creation can participate RC. As BG has stepped cross-section section it can be considered as resonant  filter and/or as multiwave  wave guide-resonator, which each section is intended for work in  certain part of general working range of  BG. The same stepped section have  many typical  matching transitions. As activators of BG as resonator all chambers of the pyramid can act, with  which it is connected with  wave guides-corridors (NC, HC, MW, and AC). Proceeding from presence of cracks system  and their size, BG can serve and  radiator-catcher of energy WEW shorter than 1m. carrying out gallery communication (and through it of  all chambers) with pyramid body. Each of walls of  BG (because of their ridge structure formed with steps) it is possible to consider as an impedance surface.

Feature of the pyramid chambers  (practically all, including RC) consists  in that quality of processing of their walls and ceiling is much better, than the floor. An exception makes only floor of TLCh , which quality of processing  is so faultless, as well as its other borders. Specified above  rule (and an exception from it), most likely,is not casually. Probably that more smooth and more dense (thanks to polishing) walls and ceiling of chambers act as reflecting mirrors, and the floor as  "window" for the waves exciting with the given chamber which this "window" is capable to pass.  Reflecting from the ceiling of chambers (by the way, ceiling of RC-5 and ALCh has the form of angular mirror antenna) and passing through transparent (for waves of certain kind and length) the floor, waves should be radiated, basically,aside of the earth. But, if under the chamber floor there is a screen they can  reflect upwards or in any other direction. As "underground" screen ALCh the cavity filled with special sand about which it has already been told is capable to act. If it is so all chambers can directly act and as radiators-catchers  of WEW, commensurable with their sizes or  less (i.e. waves with lengths in some metres and  shorter). The exception makes only TLCh, which is capable to interact with "external world" and with the pyramid body only through wave guides-mines and wave guides-corridors. However, with the body of the pyramid it can interact and through "slots" in granitic facing  which "hole" can serve. Thus, all chambers of the pyramid individually or together with others can  act not only as resonators, but also as activators of the pyramid as flare   and/or pin connector   dielectric antenna. 

Pyramid's antennas

In the pyramid it is possible to find  some types of antennas, including mirror, lens, horn, antennas of superficial waves and slot-hole. All of them  very short are considered  lower. Lens and mirror antennas As the lens antenna (generally) can serve the volume of the flat, concave or convex form, which size is more than length of  wave, capable to refract (at small absorption)  considerable part directed on it energy. As the mirror antenna the metal (generally) or  dielectric surface of  flat, concave or convex form, which size  has more than length of  wave, capable to reflect  considerable part of the directed on  it  energy can serve. Thus, process of transformation of electromagnetic waves in mirror antennas  is caused with  directed reflexion of waves from a surface (plane) mirror (or mirrors), and lens ones with  refraction of waves in the  body (volume) of lens ( with change of their direction of distribution). And than  the less absorbing ability of material of mirror and lens antennas  and more reflective ability of mirror ones and throughput and refracting ability lens, the better (at other equal conditions) are expressed accordingly their mirror and lens properties. It is necessary to notice that the same material for one lengths of waves can be opaque and to work as reflecting mirror, for others can be rather transparent and to work as a lens, and for the third  can be almost completely transparent and let pass waves, practically with them without  interaction.

Roughnesses of the working surface of the mirror and lens antennas made by  person, as a rule, do not exceed  ^/16... ^1/8, where ^ is length of  wave, though, in principle, they can be more, and on form the surface can be and stepped (zoned) that is most often used in lens antennas.

The working range of mirror and lens antennas  is defined with  their sizes, and also  with reflective ability of the mirror  surface  and  with refracting ability of lens,volume depending on properties of  material. To requirements of the lens antenna the pyramid satisfies even now, and in its original form (the having the dense and carefully polished surface) it can be considered and as complex of several mirror antennas . As the lens antenna  it is capable to act all body of the pyramid, and as mirror antenna (in particular, of passive retransmitters) its borders could act earlier. Depending on their profile which is precisely unknown, they could not only reflect, but also concentrate energy falling on them in dotted focus or on  focal line.

 If the form of the surface of the pyramid borders was close to spherical or parabolic such borders could focus energy falling on them in the certain point (focus). If concavities were located on axes of borders but then borders can be considered as the angular mirror antenna focusing energy along the line parallel to the line of the bend. If the surface of borders  where open mines go out was close to conic these borders can be considered as the walls of conic horn  antenna. Concrete conclusions about influence of concavities can be made only at the presence of more exact information about their character.

Ability of the pyramid  borders in its original form to work as focusing mirrors in  light and thermal range  is confirmed  with indications of eyewitnesses seeing the pyramid  revetted. Some of them asserted that the pyramid not only  sparkled brightly in those days in the sun, but also emitted streams of hot air. In principle, the  pyramid borders could work similarly  on longer WEW. As mirror angular antennas  can serve the  ceiling of two sloping roofs (TSR) of ALCh  and RC-5. The working range of the pyramid as complex of mirror antennas could cover WEW beginning from metre waves of  radio range and to waves  shorter than  light. Possibility of work of the pyramid within the assumed working range can   be check up experimentally on models.

Pyramid as  horn antenna. As horn antenna as it is known, can serve any partially closed surface in the form of circular, pyramidal, or free form of  cone having the rectilinear or curvilinear forming  horn antenna use usually as irradiators of mirror and lens antennas, but they can be used and as independent antennas, To the internal (working) surface of horn on reflective properties and accuracy (smoothness) of its executions, are produced about the same demands, as to the mirror antennas. The horn antenna  can be filled not only practically with transparent  dielectric (in particular with  air), but also with  more dense one capable to render essential influence on its basic characteristics. Depending on size of opening angle  and size of opening   in lengths of waves distinguish so-called inphase and phased horn antennas different  rather essential on  their properties. Phased horn antennas (they, as a rule, have a big opening angle ), at which difference between length of  forming and height  is more 0,75 … than 1,5 lengths of waves, are wide-range antennas. Directed properties of such horns (in particular, width of main petal  and factor of strengthenings) are defined basically, with  opening  angle of horn  and depend on  wave length  too little  and the phase centre in which there is  concentration of energy, is located near to geometrical top and  is not a point  but rather extensive area.

The basic radiation of horn antenna (symmetric), excited  with one  or an others method   is directed (without influence internal heterogeneity and dielectric filling) along its axis aside opening (of  wide end) of horn. In the  presence nearby of screen opening , the horn turns to the closed  resonator capable repeatedly to strengthen energy coming in it  part which it can radiate through a throat (the narrow end) on those waves, for which this throat is transparent on filling and more critical in the size.

The pyramid as  whole as horn antenna can be considered only in it original form when it had more dense external surface, which could serve as walls of the pyramidal horn filled with less dense, and therefore more transparent dielectric in the form of calcareous blocks. Radiation  of the pyramid as horn antenna if from its opening there is no screen, should  be directed towards the earth.

From resulted before  information follows that the pyramid as horn antenna  had opening angle 76о, the opening size  ~230 х 230 m, and waveguide exit (the initial size of the top platform) ~2,4 х 2,4 m. The horn with the specified sizes is capable to work  as phased horn on waves of  metre range (and  shorter) if its walls possess the sufficient reflective properties, and internal filling is more or less transparent.  Then in the range specified above width of the main petal of horn , approximately equal to (without its dielectric fillings)to its opening angle should be  order 70 … 80  and have tabletop kind. As activators (radiators-catchers) of the pyramid as horn antenna could act located in it chambers of different level, about what already it has been told above. If below the activator of this or that level  is located the screen reflecting waves of certain length, the cut with this screen  top  part  of horn   turns for those waves which can be reflected from its walls, to the resonator-amplifier, capable to act as the radiator-catcher of the pyramid as pin connector dielectric antenna of superficial waves. Pyramid borders (northern and southern) as horn antennas on waves more shortly 0,44 m could work provided that they had the conic form. As their activators could  serve open mines which go out  of the  pyramid surface. At depth of concavity  about 1 m opening angle  of such horn is close to  180о, i.e. it "degenerates" almost in a flat flange of  waveguide (it could  serve the mine leaving on the corresponding border). However (at the big size in lengths of waves) such horn increases a few  the  concentration of energy  in the front semispace.

Slot-hole antennas of the pyramid. As it is known, slot-hole antennas are widely applied in range of the microwave  though, basically, they can be used and on longer waves. The length of rectangular slot, as well as wide wall of  rectangular waveguide, should  be  slightly more than half of the longest wave of working range. If on the border of two mediums (for example, on the resonator wall, including a wave- guide), in one of which are excited electromagnetic vibrations to cut a slot (or an aperture),  the part of energy of those lengths of waves which are capable to get through it,will be radiated in other medium. As two multielement slot-hole antenna lattices it is possible to consider system of deepenings, of ordered  and  regularly  placed along lateral walls of BG. Proceeding from the size of slots these antennas  can work on WEW more shortly of 1,0 m, and cut in over them stones can serve, for example, for improvement of concordance. As the single slot-hole antenna it is possible to consider "window" of ChL and "hole" TLCh.

 Antennas of superficial waves. As it is known, antennas of the superficial waves (bar  and plane)  are directing systems, the longitudinal size of which there is bigger than length of  wave consisting of homogeneous (identical) heterogeneity along which electromagnetic waves extend.

The surface of these antennas  can be compared with  the road covered with the "viscous" top layer. Particles-waves in this "viscous" layer as like "get mixed up " and  are not in  condition to  come off  from it but can move on it, and having reached the end (the surface or bar ), come off from it and radiated. Plane antennas of superficial waves are the surfaces consisting of two or several layers with different electric properties (for example, metal and dielectric  with different properties), the surfaces having ridge structure, etc. Radiation of plane antennas  of superficial waves  is directed under  small angle to their surfaces. Pivot antennas  of superficial waves are dielectric bars or longitudinal systems of  coaxial homogeneous and regular (ordered located) heterogeneities which can be made either  from dielecric, or from metal. Radiation of pivot antennas  is directed usually along bar axis.

The working range of antennas of superficial waves is set with  working range of their  activator, and also depends on a design,  sizes, workmanship and properties of  material from  which antenna is  made. Excitation of antennas of superficial waves  is carried out more often  with horn  or  waveguide , irradiating surface adjoining them or bar which can be inserted  with one  end in horn  or  waveguide. If behind the activator there is a screen, radiation of antenna of superficial waves will be unidirectional. Dielectric bars (cylindrical, conic or pyramidal) can be continuous, made of homogeneous dielectric, or hollow, more truly, made of two dielectrics of different density. More dense of them forms usually external  layer, and as internal filling serves air or another rather transparent, dielectric. Dielectric bar wide-angle antennas while are insufficiently well studied. However (by analogy with other wide-angle antennas , for example, horns) it is possible to assume that they should differ with wide working range and  have width practically independent from frequency of main petal , defined basically with angle of  dielectric cone.

The pyramid as bar dielectric antenna can be considered  in it modern sort. As  dielectric bar can serve not only the  body of the  pyramid, towering over the earth surface, but also rocky (more dense in comparison with neighboring) rocks leaving in  kind some sort of  bar  deep into of the earth, if those ones  of course, there are . As activators-amplifiers of  different kind and/or wave range  for the  pyramid as  of bar  dielectric antenna , in the principle all its chambers can serve about what it has already been told. At presence under that or other chamber of the screen reflecting waves of certain length,  with the activator of waves of corresponding range can serve and "short-circuited" (shielded  from the opening side ) horn  (or its part) about what also it has been  already told. In the  absence of the screens located below this or that chamber and capable to reflect waves of its working range, each of three chambers, basically, is  capable to be as  activator not only the top (artificial) part of bar -pyramid, but also  possible natural part going deep into  the earth. First of all, it concerns to ChBL located together with leaving  from it horizontal corridors in radical rock. But in the presence of the screen located above it, it can be as activator of  only hypothetical underground part of the pyramid. The workeing range of  the pyramid  as bar dielectric antenna is defined not only with  working range of its chambers-resonators, but also with properties of  material overground   and underground part of the  pyramid, and therefore, most likely, it is limited with  metre range of WEW , and/or waves  of only the  sound range, and/or  still unknown to us. But this assumption demands of careful check.

Plane antennas of superficial waves of the  pyramid are presented in the  pyramid with several constructive elements:

First of all,as antennas  of superficial waves those sites of  pyramid corridors-wave guides can act where there are steps of  not absolutely clear appointments, namely, a corridor part before ALCh and part  of DC. But for this purpose the  floor of these corridors should consist  of at least of two layers diverse dielectric. Therefore this question also demands of  check.

Secondly, as antennas of superficial waves can act, as already has been told, ridge structures, for example, lateral and face walls of BG. As activators of lateral walls of BG (western and east) can serve  located along them slot-hole antenna lattices about which it has been  already told, and as  activator of northern wall of BG ,MW ,  and/or , HC going from ALCh the northern wall of  BG can serve as the screen reflecting  part of energy, coming through HC, towards the top part of BG (and on the contrary). There is the certain structure reminding the ridge surface, and in ChBL, but exact data about  its initial design are mislaid in centuries.

Whether the Cheops pyramid  could serve for communication with space ?

The radio engineering approach to  Cheops pyramid  in whole and to its elements separately has shown their potential ability to work as those or other typical  of radio engineering devices. But whether they had possibility to work with such  manner? Electromagnetic energy, as it is known, is necessary for work, with which these devices could interact.

For example, the usual mirror, a reservoir surface, the windowpane and even the white building wall are capable to work, in the principle, as flat mirror antennas  even on waves of  light range. But that they really worked in this quality, it is necessary to direct on them WEW (rays of light), i.e. in the surrounding their space  should be the energy of the necessary kind and length of  wave. The same concerns and the pyramid. With what waves the pyramid could interact? That the pyramid from dead "iron" became operating accepting or accepting-transferring complex,  the energy WEW also is necessary for it (or any others). But whence these waves could undertake 4,5 thousand years ago? The answer to this question is rather simple. Natural WEW which surrounded the pyramid from the moment of its "birth" and also continue to surround until now, are coming from space WEW passed with atmosphere of the Earth. Terrestrial atmosphere, as it is known, passes almost without absorption  radio-waves in length of 1 mm, 4,5 mm, 8 mm and waves from 10 mm to 20 m. With weak absorption it passes  the waves of  close ultraviolet (310 … 390 nanometers) and visible radiation (390 … 760 nanometers). With considerable absorption, but nevertheless it passes  waves of infra-red radiation (15мкм-1мм). The others WEW (from known  today) atmosphere to an earth surface practically does not pass.

Coincidence of the hypothetical working range of the pyramid with  lengths of waves, which atmosphere of the Earth is capable to pass, says that the pyramid not only could, but also should interact  with them by the  principle of those typical radio engineering devices which are the closest analogues for it.  And it should occur independently from whether it was intended   for this purpose initially or not, just as a dew drop if the ray of light falls on it , always  works by the principle of the lens antenna though  nobody   did not authorise it  in advance.   For what the pyramid could be used by our far ancestors? If the pyramid interacted with space waves with the principle of the typical radio engineering devices  the  question is opened whether it could   be used in this quality by our far ancestors. And if "YES", that for what purpose. Unequivocally to answer these questions,  is not represented possible, at least, for a while. However it is possible to put forward nevertheless some rather courageous, but quite probable assumptions and hypotheses if to make some assumptions and to involve "the pseudo-scientific" information.

Ancient so-called «Texts of pyramids» are known about which was told, for example, in [6]. In them to the person placed in the sarcophagus after death ( more true, his soul),   possibility of travel in  open spaces and dialogue  with brothers on mind  is attributed But it is necessary to consider that translation  of these texts was based on the earliest hypotheses when the  role  of Pharaohs tombs was assigned  to the pyramids and into  the sarcophagus the dead body was located, ostensibly. Later hypotheses [4], as already it was told, assume that into the  sarcophagus quite live person had been located in the moment of his  familiarization to the  secret knowledge and  his transition to higher step of knowledge. If the same «Texts of pyramids»  apply to the live person, they  can describe outer-space communication sessions.

Placing  the live person  into the sarcophagus   can be considered as making the resonator from the human brain  which can act, radiating,as it  is known, at its work the electromagnetic waves bearing the certain information. It is not excluded that brain radiation only modulated the natural (bearing) waves of space radiation coming in the chamber from outer space (and leaving there) through  the mines and corridors of the pyramid connected to this or that chamber and  with it (and not only with  it)  strengthened as  the resonator . As modulating waves could serve and waves of the sound range, i.e. speech of the person who was  in the  sarcophagus. Modulation process (and  demodulation)  is not clear yet. As the modulator (demodulator) could act and the human brain and/or  used recently open properties of the salt. For example, the sound waves radiated by the person and strengthened with TLCh, ChL and/or BG as resonators, could get into the  pyramid body through "window" (W) or passage (P), somewhere in the  area  of RC. These chambers, taking ito account the strong echo arising in the same place, could  serve as additional powerful resonant amplifiers of sound vibrations and, rendering variable ("shock") pressure upon the salt  on the  ceiling of the top RC to cause "laser" effect about which it was already  have been told. But they are  only the assumptions adjoining with fantasy. And more authentic answer to this question will give, probably, corresponding experts.

Niche of ALCh could carry out the same role, as the sarcophagus TLCh, i.e. serve as  resonator, capable to strengthen the waves radiated by the person, standing in this niche. Probably that placing a head within its this or that section, it was possible selectively to strengthen waves of the  certain range. Probably also that the different  size of sections is connected with  that the  working range of different people differs a little   and then each person using the  niche, should choose for himself the most suitable section. From ALCh WEW and/or sound could go through HC at first in BG and through it  to RC. Then all could occur byanalogies with waves going to RC from TLCh.

Above the pyramid work has been considered, basically, in the transfer regime, but (in conformity with the reciprocity principle) similarly it can carried out accepting.  The question about  that in  what mode the pyramid could work, demands more detailed study and in many aspects depends on that  how powerful were its resonators-amplifiers. In the optimum case, the live person who is in sarcophagus of TLCh (or in niche of ALCh),  could  connecte to the  communication channel of inhabitants the star worlds "living" in  the area of constellations, on which it  time of pyramids mines and DC were directed, and to "overhear", about what they "speak" among themselves. He probably, even  was capable to join  their "conversation", and also to "peep", how they live. Just  this   could be reflected in reached to us «Texts of pyramids», which it times of their decoding, maybe, have simply misunderstood. As to  ChBL , it could serve as the additional amplifier for the  part of waves, coming from TLCh and ALCh and coinciding with its working range and also could  be their radiator-catcher. It could serve and  powerful retransmitter  of the  live person voice who was  for example, in ALCh, TLCh or in  ChBL which could something to "broadcast" for the inhabitants living in vicinities of the  pyramid. Ancient Egyptians could  by means of system of underground chambers not only  strengthen sounds, but even  simulate  voice of the person. The device, capable  to do it  was  revealed in the bottom part of the sounding sculpture - «memnonsky a colossus». This ancient statue in height of 20 metres which is near to the Egyptian city Luxor, before its reconstruction could  speak, ostensibly, with human voice.

Stated above assumptions, probably, will seem to many people  fantastic. However, a percent of probability  that some of them can be quite real  is rather high, and therefore it is not necessary to reject them at once categorically. Besides, in radio engineering hypotheses, unlike hypotheses from all other areas, all constructive elements of the pyramid are well entered. With the radio engineering point of view it is possible to explain and its features, including improbable accuracy of execution and extraordinary careful (at the level of optical paths) processing of  surface of its separate elements, and also considerable distinction of  processing quality of  internal surface of its different corridors and chambers. It distinction earlier tried to explain with that the pyramid «was put in operation» with "defects". Actually it could be defined with differences in requirements, produced  to the radio engineering devices working in the different frequency ranges.

For example, admissible size of heterogeneities  of waveguides and resonators for waves in the length of  order 2 m can reach 10 sm and more.  It is  quite  coordinated with prospective initial quality of processing of those corridors and chambers, which could be  intended for work on these waves  and ,therefore ,to  process them more carefully had no any sense. From the radio engineering  point of viewit is possible to explain   presence of  salt covering, and also many other  "strangenesses" of the pyramid, which any other hypotheses cannot  explain yet.

Conclusions and offers

Preliminary conclusions. Analysis of the information about Cheops pyramid carried out  with  the method of analogies offered in [1] and [2], allowed to look at it as on the radio engineering device and to make a number of preliminary conclusions, which  in final analysis,  is possible to formulate as follows:

 Cheops pyramid (in its original form) with sufficient degree of probability could work as complex radio engineering  device including crystal substances, waveguides, resonators, antennas of different types and others  devices connected between themselves (by means of wave guides-corridors, wave guides-mines and radiators-catchers) both in more complex separate devices, and in the  single whole.

 Crystal substances entering practically in all building materials of the pyramid, including granitic plugs, could  show the remarkable properties, which part  is widely used in radio engineering.  The salt put on walls and ceiling of ALCh, and also on the ceiling of RC-1, could  carry out  the special functions, including (if to consider recently opened "laser" effect of table salt) transfer of sound range waves   into the waves  of infra-red (or any another)  range with their simultaneous modulation.  The working range of the  pyramid, along with WEW could cover and elastic, in particular, sound waves as which resonators-amplifiers, basically, are capable to act all its chambers.

 The working range of the  pyramid as the  whole and TLCh in particular could cover (presumably) WEW from a metre range to  light range inclusively (or even more short). But working range of ALCh  and BG, most likely, was less wide, than TLCh  and  was displaced towards long waves, and ChBL  is narrowest and was limited, probably, only with long-wave site of WEW of the pyramid working range  or only with sound waves.

 The hypothetical working range of the pyramid (regarding to WEW) in its initial kind almost completely coincides with range of WEW , passed with earth atmosphere. Space radiation of those wave ranges which  is capable to pass the earth atmosphere could act as  external energy source. And just with these waves it could interact strengthening their with its chambers-resonators, and also modulating (and demodulating) by means of  internal energy source.

 As  internal energy source («the setting generator») could  act the person (radiation of his brain and/or sounds of his voice), being in one of  the resonant chambers. The brain of the person could serve and the modulator (demodulator). For the same purpose could be used and other means, in particular, "laser" properties of the salt reacting to "shock" pressure.If pyramid radiation in any operating mode and/or  wave range was directed towards the Earth, the pyramid was capable to act as primary radiator-catcher of  spherical heterogeneous dielectric lens, which the globe  actualy is,  but only for that kind and  wave range for which it is transparent enough.

On the basis of everything told above, it is possible to put forward the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis:  Cheops pyramid could be multirange accepting-transferring  complex which is carrying out communication with terrestrial and/or space objects, meanwhile the pyramid as the whole could work as  independent antenna and/or as  "dotted" radiator-catcher of the spherical heterogeneous dielectric lense by name  the Earth, it could be  and some kind of broadcasting station  of local meaning.

Offers. Radio engineering hypotheses, including a hypothesis stated above, according to opinion of the author, already now look much more real, than the majority of hypotheses from other areas which are considered almost proved. Therefore , to supporters of radio engineering hypotheses  offer to take the courage and  having united the efforts, from careful and shy statements of radio engineering assumptions and hypotheses to pass to serious scientific researches of Cheopsthe pyramid  as radio engineering construction, but for this purpose follows to remember that new ways in  science (and not only in  science)  very often make fantasts  and therefore not to reject categorically not only quite real, but also fantastic hypotheses.

 To draw to this  question attention of  serious scientists working in the different radio engineering directions, including the crystal substances, using in radio engineering, filters, waveguides, resonators and antennas.
 Accurately to formulate the questions on which it is necessary or desirable to get exact answers and to collect on them most trustworthy information. Thus it is necessary to  base not on the popular -scientific literature as it has been made by the author of this work, but on scientific articles and reports of expeditions, and on  language of the original to exclude possible discrepancies of translation.
 To create  at least one  more special expedition gathered from experts, working in different radio engineering directions, including, first of all, the experts, which are busy  with system subjects.
 To specify or experimentally to define radio engineering properties of materials, which are used in the pyramid, taking into account its prospective working range.

To check up experimentally (on models), whether the pyramid and its separate elements is capable  to work in conformity with selected for them radio engineering analogues.
 Never  stop on reached, and  go  further and further, as knowledge ways are infinite.

If after perusal of this work at  radio engineering direction of the Cheops pyramid  will appear at least some new active supporters it is possible to consider, that the purpose put by the author, is reached.

The literature:
1. Timofeeva A.A. Antennas, created by the person and the nature//Elektrosvjaz.-2006.? №1.

2. Pois A. Our World and We. A series of editions «Searches of truth». М:  The international centre of the scientific and technical information, Open Company «Mobile communications». 2004.

3. Babanin V.P. Secrets of the Great pyramids. A series, The world of culture, history and philosophy ». St Petersburg,  publishing house "Fallow deer", 1999. 512 p.

4. Tomkins Peter. Secrets of   Great Cheops pyramid . Riddles of two millenia. М: Joint-Stock Company Tsentrpoligraf, 2005. 479 p.

5. Lemezurie P.  The Great pyramid is deciphered. М: Veche, 2000. 480 p.

6. Bewvel R, Dzhilbert E.Secrets of pyramids. Constellation of Orion and Pharaohs of Egypt. М: Veche, 1996.? 368 with.

7.Morozov  N. D. A global cycle of  precessions and the mankind future: history with eyes of the mathematician.М: Amrita-Rus: White alvy, 2005.? 576 with.

The author of article: Timofeeva A.A.

Author:  Timofeeva A.A.


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