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Historical objects  Temples, Palaces 14.11.2015. Yuryev-Polsky. St. George's Cathedral.

Юрьев-Польский. Георгиевский собор. Yuryev-Polsky. St. George's Cathedral.


Today, the town of Yuriev-Polskiy only district center in the Vladimir region. True, and 750 years ago, he was a modest centre of the small inheritance that belonged to Prince Svyatoslav, the mighty son of Vsevolod III the Big nest.

 



Yuryev-Polsky town (19 thousand inhabitants) in the Vladimir region, about 200 km from Moscow on Stromynka street, the ancient street of Suzdal (now Schelkovskoe highway). It is located approximately in the center of a "small Golden Ring" - on 50-70 kilometers to Vladimir, Suzdal, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Alexandrov, but that's why he remains perhaps the least known town on the Golden Ring. From Moscow one day here is not that going the distance is rather big, the schedule is inconvenient. Nevertheless, it is worth visiting: in Yuryev-Polish was preserved St. George's Cathedral, built before the Mongol invasion - perhaps the most unusual in the Central part of Russia. St. George's was founded in 1156 Yuri Dolgoruky - he even founded a couple of dozen cities in the Zalesye, and Moscow among them then not even really stood out. The prefix "Polish" may not be misled: the poles to do with it, it would be better Yuriev-Opole, St. George's-in-the-Fields - after all, it was the beginning of Opole, forest-steppe is "the island" for the impenetrable forests of the Oka.

 

Especially any yurievykh house in Ancient Russia, it was Nemer: Yurievets on the Volga, near Kiev Yuryev (now bila Tserkva), and even Estonian Tartu is also a former St. George's. In 1212, the city with the countryside will inherit Svyatoslav, son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. Initially, according to the custom of that time, he started to fight with siblings for Vladimir, but when in 1216, the Principality of Vladimir had to fight with a coalition of Novgorod, Smolensk and Rostov - suddenly stood up for the older brother of Yuri. The war Vladimir still lost, Lipetsk decisive battle was near St. George, but Svyatoslav remained a faithful brother, and participated in its wars up to the battle city where Yuri laid his head. In 1246-48, Svyatoslav, was the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but was expelled, fought a bit with the Lithuanians and retired. In General, unusually for those times, a positive character, even canonized. And that he Yuriev-Polsky obliged the Cathedral of St. George.



 


Leaving the car in the Central square, we went up on the shaft. In Yuryev has its own Kremlin - ring shaft about 350 meters in diameter, which are enclosed in the Cathedral of St. George and Archangel Michael monastery is the main attractions of the city.

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Michael-Archangel monastery was founded by Sviatoslav, during its history it was destroyed at least 4 times, and the current building is 17th and 18th century. Left to right: Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1792-1806), bell tower (1685-87), residential building (1763), the gate Church of St. John the Evangelist (1670), and finally St George's wooden Church (1718) from the village of Egore, moved here in 1960-ies. However, the monastery I will go into more detail in the next section.

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On the other side of the shaft - Central Russian district town. Granite Svyatoslav looks at merchants:

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View of the monastery from the other side - in the frame and Znamenskaya Church with a refectory (1625):

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To the left is visible a huge, cumbersome, and even beheaded Trinity Cathedral (1909), which is our goal and Peeps out shyly



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Right inside the Kremlin gardens. In County towns, in earthen Kremlins, it's business as usual:

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The street leading to the Cathedral from the back gate:

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As already mentioned, St. George Cathedral became the last Russian Church before the Mongol invasion - laid at the beginning of the reign of Sviatoslav, consecrated in 1234, i.e. 4 years before battle city. Initially, he looked different - much higher and harder... but in 1452 the temple fell, and to solve it in Yuryev sent Basil Ermolina - chief archicture Moscow Principality. He in 1471 conducted the first in Russia "a comprehensive restoration of the architectural monument", only methods of scientific restoration did not know, drawings and measurements were not, and many of the pieces in 20 years managed to pilfer people - and as a result, it turned out quite not what it was originally. The Cathedral was about half that but it isn't that...

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In the white-stone architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus ' was a very popular stone carvings - sculptures, bas-reliefs, ornaments. They covered half of the Dmitrievsky Cathedral in Vladimir, they adorn the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, but the apotheosis of this art was reached in Yuryev-Polsky. The Cathedral was covered with figures and ornaments almost entirely, and its decoration composed the whole picture - whether a story, or cosmology - which is exactly what I failed to restore: now the Cathedral miraculously survived as fragments of the burned manuscript. But he's 550 years of almost 800 years of its history...

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This is particularly evident on the South wall, to which we went - she was hit hardest by the collapse, and now the figures on it form a picturesque chaos. But even by themselves, these figures are outstanding!

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Griffins very Babel:

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The most important stories of the southern wall - the Transfiguration of the Lord above the window:

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And the virgin Orans on the portal:

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Yet there is such an exotic story, as the Ascension of Alexander the great - like bas-relief decorated Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir: why in Ancient Russia, it was popular the idea of Macedonian as a sort of Orthodox Crusader, yeah but what do you want from the 12 century? I this story't noticed, like a man with outstretched arms in the left part of the frame:

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In addition to sculptures, the Cathedral is covered with ornaments that are especially good for the corner - probably the angle less postral from collapsing:

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And because someone is not a problem to identify each of these saints...

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This is already the Western wall:

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There are saints in the Deesis row, before standing in the niches of the arcature-columnar zone:

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Here the most interesting story - "Seven youths of Ephesus," about seven young Christians, which the Romans walled up in a cave where they slept for several centuries, and come to light alive in Orthodox Byzantium. But this story I again didn't identify.

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Some figures Ermolin even have built in drum:

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But first St. George's Cathedral is the North wall: it is preserved entirely, to the level of the arcature-columnar zone, inclusive, and has retained its scene painting.

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Above the entrance to the Cathedral - St. George (Yuri), followed by the princes of Vladimir:

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It is the princely figures in the niches of the arcade:

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Here, sorry, I remembered all fantasy..

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Faces are impressive:

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Animals, too:

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By the way, one of the attractions of the North wall is the elephant, and the kind of game many from attending St. George travelers to know that elephant to find. I'll be honest - it's not just: I myself did not notice, and he there - only learned upon his return. "Here is the elephant I did not notice", so to speak...

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There is also a couple of again mate and me stories, "Daniel in the lion's den, the Three youths in the fiery cave," and in General, all together piled up in one idea: "God is with us!", Bogachenko the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, that in the future Russia.

 


And here's another interesting story - letters just to the left of the face. You can clearly read "Baku" is actually a fragment of the name of the chief architect, probably the Bakun or Bakum (Habakkuk?). Who was he and where, now no one can say, but in all this there is something Asian, Persian, so it might be true somewhere in there? All over the Cathedral worked as the gang of no less than 20 people. Critics on the "style" recognized the authorship at least 11 different sculptors.



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In the Cathedral you can go to 25 rubles a ticket, and 100 rubles photography. The caretaker - a small district a peasant, but as it turned out, at least the history of the Cathedral knows well. Ceiling murals, he said, 1827... but most importantly - white stones with bas-reliefs collected by archaeologists in the surrounding gardens. Tourists in the Cathedral a lot, remove the frame without 3-5 people is almost impossible - all the same we are "Golden Ring"...

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The most important of these stones - Svetoslavov cross, the main Shrine of the Cathedral:

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A little bit about the other churches of the Vladimir-Suzdal - Nativity Cathedral in Suzdal, and of St. Demetrius in Vladimir:

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Stones, stones, stones...

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It was the last in Central Russia's pre-Mongol temple, which I have not seen. Yet to explore the whole surviving architectural legacy of the pre-Mongol era I miss several churches on the outskirts of Novgorod and the Ukrainian Cathedral in Kaniv. And yet in Yuryev I envy the professionals-critics, who are probably watching this Cathedral almost like a movie. My knowledge of the canons of Church art clearly expected much... Finally - a couple of shots from the other side of the shaft:

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Источник: http://varandej.livejournal.com/


Autor:  varandej


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