Asia: Ancient cities ХАТТУСА / HATTUSA

PHOTO: HaTTuSa 40° 0'22.90"С 34°36'59.77"В

Хаттуса - Хаттусас, Хаттушаш, совр. Богазкёй, в 150 км от Анкары в Турции, столица Хеттского царства. Развалины обнаружены в 1834. Найдены остатки крепостных стен, дворца, храмов, акведука, жилых помещений и др. строений, а также богатый богазкёйский архив. Хаттуса известна со второй половины III тыс. до н. э. В XXIII в. до н. э. его правитель Памбас участвовал в коалиции против аккадского царя Нарам-Cуэна. С начала II тыс. до н. э. - один из торговых центров Анатолии. В XVIII в. до н. э. хеттский царь г. Куссара Анитта захватил и разрушил Хаттусу, но уже в начале XVII в. до н. э. город был восстановлен. Соперничество с Куссаром закончилось переносом столицы в Хаттусу при царе Хаттусили I, а при Хантилис I город был обнесён крепостной стеной. В XIII в. до н. э. Хаттуса была разграблена племенами касков, восстановлена при Хаттусили III. В начале XII в. до н. э. подверглась нашествию "народов моря", уничтоживших Хеттскую державу.



Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. The region is set in the great loop of the Kızıl River in central Anatolia. Before 2000 BC, a settlement of the apparently indigenous Hatti people was established on sites that had been occupied even earlier. The earliest traces of settlement on the site are from the sixth millennium BC. In the 19th and 18th centuries BC, merchants from Assur in Assyria established a trading post here, setting up in their own separate quarter of the city. The center of their trade network was located in Kanesh (Neša) (modern Kültepe). Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Assur introduced writing to Hattusa, in the form of cuneiform. Only a generation later, a Hittite-speaking king had chosen the site as his residence and capital. The Hittite Language had been gaining speakers at Hattic's expense for some time. The Hattic "Hattus" now became Hittite "Hattusa", and the king took the name of Hattusili I, the "one from Hattusa". Hattusili marked the beginning of a non-Hattic-speaking "Hittite" state, and of a royal line of Hittite Great Kings — 27 of whom are now known by name. After the Kaskas arrived to the kingdom's north, they twice attacked the city to the point where the kings had to move the royal seat to another city. Under Tudhaliya I, the Hittites moved north to Sapinuwa, returning later. Under Muwatalli II, they moved south to Tarhuntassa but assigned Hattusili III as governor over Hattusa. Mursili III returned the seat to Hattusa, where the kings remained until the end of the Hittite kingdom in the 12th century BC. Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986.