Excuse for machine translation.


Forbidden City –  the ancient capital of China, now surrounded by modern Beijing, which for nearly 500 years was ruled by 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing. The city lies on the 40th latitude to the point of its intersection with the meridian of Samaipata and precisely oriented on a north - south. But now is not about that.

In the 15th - 16th centuries, for the construction of the Forbidden City were mined and transported to the place of work, a lot of stones of various sizes. Moreover, most large monoliths were brought from a quarry located 70 km from the site. The largest of these "stones", rightly called the "Big carved stone" now weighs more than 200 tons, and when it was whole, weighed about 300 tons.

китай пекин запретный город

Large carved stone Фото Sergio Zoffoli

Stones are a huge monolithic slab of more than 10 meters in length and a width of about 4 covered the entire surface of the elaborately carved. Such plates more than a dozen.

Plates stacked between the stairs leading up to the Imperial Palace. In fact, all the construction is a step pyramid with a temple on top. Some of the stairs, by the way, also carved from a solid piece of rock, in 5 steps in the section. Imagine what was waste in manufacturing. Fold stairs from separate units without sacrificing the appearance, it would be many times simpler.

The whole vast territory of the Forbidden City is paved with rectangular stone blocks of various sizes. Not a stone blocks, namely blocks, each of which was produced in the quarry, processed, delivered and stacked.

It can be said that the Forbidden City - it is solid rock. The walls, embankments, squares and even fences, all made of stone and covered with carvings, and on a gigantic scale.

китай пекин запретный город

Wall in the Forbidden City Фото mathias.b

Wall Feathered Serpent Pyramid at Teotihuacan

Some carved elements of ancient Chinese capital's striking resemblance to the same in the other ancient capital, only in another continent.

Recently in the pages of a reputable site - livescience.com came across an article, reported that Chinese engineer Jiang Li of the University of Science and Technology have found some documents, 500 years ago, reports some information about how to move the giant monoliths.

Engineer translated ancient text and found that huge slabs weighing more than 130 tons were transported, "a group of men older than 28 years" in a sleigh gliding on ice. According to Lee, this fact is indirectly confirmed by other findings. Pawdite did not specify which ones.

Working every 500 meters and dug wells to extract water, which is then poured over ice. This makes the surface even more slippery and facilitates the movement of the sled.

In order to understand why the Chinese used a sledge through the 3000 years after the invention of the wheel, Jiang Li and his co-authors on the study from Princeton University have considered the energy costs required for the movement of the sled.

According to their calculations, about 50 people, watering the road can haul 123-ton monolith over rough terrain of the quarry, which is located 70 kilometers from the Forbidden City.

китай пекин запретный город

китай пекин запретный город

 Plates Forbidden City Фото deekew

At the same time, the researchers found that the average speed with which dragged the stone on wet ice should be about 8 cm per second. This speed is necessary in order to liquid water, which is poured over the road, I did not have time to freeze.

The researchers suggested that, in general, the builders prefer to move the stones on a sled on a smooth icy road and not on gurneys. The old document, which translated Lee says that the ancient foremen were even debate about how to transport the blocks for the construction of the Forbidden City, or in a sleigh on wheels.

китай пекин запретный город

Detail of carving on a plate

Ancient builders understand that when using the sled, will require much more staff, time and money, than if the mules dragged the wagon. But the sledge is seen as a safe and reliable means to slow the transport of heavy goods.

Wrong to think that this level of projects, such as the Forbidden City were carried out without the necessary level of planning and organization - scientists say.

All this is certainly true, but historians still do not delve into the technical aspect of uncomfortable questions. Moving such goods at such a distance, on a sled seems to put it mildly, unlikely. Such a method would be suitable for the carriage of small blocks, but no it is not necessary for the hundred-ton boulders.

No sleigh will not withstand the weight of 100, and even more than 200 tons. Even if the rails are made of several logs and put them directly on the monolith, under such a weight after a certain number of meters from logs or from the road there is nothing left.

Hundred-ton stone in any case, crushed wood and turn it into dust. For the same reason, do not get to roll those boulders.

Conveyance of the transformer on a sled

Even if the runners made from steel channel, which of course bear this weight, then move it does not work, because road surface instantly unusable and sledges just bury it.

That is why the inconsistent version of the construction of the pyramids using a ramp that would have to be made from a material of the same density as the loads move on it. That is - of stone. Just as the carriage rails and wheels that ride on them, made of the same material.

китай пекин запретный город   китай пекин запретный город

The area of the Forbidden City. Фото Cristina Sottile и vinhtuyen

On such machines, transport transformers weighing 270 tons.

Today, for the transportation of goods such weight developed a special technique, bearing assemblies which are made from high-strength materials. To use special lifting cranes and steel cables. No rope which will not withstand hundred-ton weight. Again, hitch a rope is not for nothing, and have nothing to lift the slab. See. Article «Pyramid of Cheops is building Europe».

So it is not clear how the ancient builders overcame on the icy road descents and ascents. Especially when you consider that the plates are very heavy, thin and long strips of stone, which is very fragile. The slightest misalignment can split the stone.

As we know from school physics course - ice melts under pressure, and that this is achieved due to the sliding effect. We all watched as the massive objects under its weight gradually grow (immersed) into the ice. Now imagine how quickly the ice melts under the 120-ton megalith.

Также вызывает сомнения лютая зима на 40-й широте, которая проходит посередине Средиземного моря. В прошлом году, например, в Пекине была зафиксирована самая низкая температура за 26 лет наблюдений минус 4.6 градуса. Эта температура на 4,1 градуса Цельсия ниже, чем средняя температура в декабре за все годы наблюдений. Таким образом, средняя температура зимой в Пекине около нуля. Хотя конечно, 500 лет назад всё могло быть и по-другому.