Asia: Rocky villages Тушпа / Tushpa

тушпа Б.jpg
PHOTO: Prof. Richard T. Mor… 38°30'11.34"С 43°20'9.84"В

Тушпа — столица древнего государства Урарту в период его максимального могущества. Тушпа располагалась на берегу озера Ван, на окраине современного турецкого города Ван. Главным элементом Тушпы служила Ванская скала — первое известное место резиденции урартских царей. Во времена правления царя Русы I (735 — 714 годы до н.э.) столица Урарту была перенесена из Тушпы в новый соседний город Русахинили.



Urartian kingdom based in their capital Tushpa on the shore of Lake Van, has covered a large territory extending from Caspian Sea and southern Caucasus to eastern and southeastern Anatolia and also northeastern Mesopotamia. In the 13th C. BCE., Urartians have formed two separate small kingdoms, Uriatri and Nairi. The name Uriatri, in Assyrian language means "Mountainous Area", a description that fits perfectly the geographical features of this area. In the Assyrian annals, this area and Lake Van are referred to as "Nairi Lands" and "The Lake Nairi". The period from 13th C. BCE to 9th C. BCE, is called the "Period of Confederation of Principalities". By this time, military pressure from Assyria on Urartu Lands was so intense that small kingdoms of Urartu have formed a coalition and fought off against Assyrians successfully. This coalition led to a unified Urartu State around 875 BCE. The kingdom of Urartu was founded by Sarduri I c. 840-830 BCE. The young state was able to resist Assyrian attack by Shalmeneser III and extended its influence to northern Iran, northern Syria and Trans-Caucasia. Sarduri I has built his capital at Tushpa (modern Van where the extensive ruins are still in great shape). In the time of Ispuini, the son of Sarduri I, who ruled from ca.830 to 810, Assyrians have recognized the Urartian kingdom as a sovereign and independent state. For the next two hundred years, Urartians have secured the largest political and cultural power of the Eastern highlands of Anatolia and Caucasia area.