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Publications  HISTORICAL GEODESY 23.01.2016. Universal navigation system.

# HISTORICAL GEODESY

Today, life of practically every man is connected anyway with the constant movement from one point to another, whether it's a trip to work or flight to another continent. Always we must first leave one place where we are and move to another one strictly certain place. When the route is known it does not cause much difficulty, but as soon as we find ourselves in an unfamiliar area at once emerges problem of choice direction and in order to move forward we enlist of maps help orienting in space..

Today or GPS navigation has become an essential part of our daily life, providing the preciseness of our movement. For this on planet and in space, work a variety of different technical devices, connected in a network.

Herewith most of people do not reflect and even do not know how the system works and where it came from. With all of today's elementary definition of their coordinates, initially it was not easy task at that historically recently.

At school we learn that on the globe there is a system of geographic coordinates formed with latitude and meridians on the surface of the Earth. We can say that the entire globe is conventionally divided into squares, each of which is a cell in global, planetary network. In reality, these lines do not exist, but we see them on a globes or maps..

The problem is that the Earth is a sphere, and the squares are, in fact, are not squares, and convex rectangles with different sizes. Since the convex image cannot be transferred to a flat map without distortion there were invented various methods to minimize the errors. Geodesy deals with these problems which mathematically allows to determine on the plane or globe position of one point relatively to another one within the given coordinate system.

In order to set the system, it is necessary to start counting with something. Selecting this point - "0" is the first and the most important question from which the whole system depends. If latitudes the globe sets itself with axis of its rotation they always will be in their place but with meridians it is a little more complicated. For a prime meridian you can select any line connecting the North and South Poles to start counting and from it. Relatively recently, this was so each region had its prime meridian and its coordinate system.

Until the end of the XIX century in various countries for reference of geographical longitudes use their own national prime meridian passing, as a rule, through the central observatories of these countries. Finally, in 1884 on the International meridian conference in Washington it was decided to adopt the Greenwich meridian for the item "zero" of longitudes reference on all globe passing through the eponymous observatory. Meridian of observatory has a value of zero, and its latitude is - 51.477222 °.

As it already mentioned, you can determine your location only relatively to other already known points and this is a very important moment. Today GPS navigator gives the coordinates because it is connected with the satellites, which continuously determine their location relatively to known points on the Earth. If to imagine yourself that for some reason the beacons on the planet will cease to transmit a signal, for example, because of power failure, the entire system will stop working.  Therefore, both in ancient times and now for improving the accuracy of measurements use and celestial link to the stars, which has one significant drawback for observer on earth - the stars are not always visible.

Several decades ago surveyors had only optical devices for visual observation, so the entire planet were established geodetic networks of various levels, consisting of specific geodetic points with known coordinates, which can be observed visually. Such a geodetic sign, visible from afar is set today even on Great Pyramid (GP) in Giza, as on ideal point for observation. And you probably saw these signs- towers, set on the hills, mounds and other uplands.

Under each such sign there is, dug in concrete rod with a metal tab, which indicates a specific point with the known coordinates. Fitting the sign of lower level was determined by laying of real traverse to it from the sign of greater level, which in its turn was obtained in the same way. As a result, all geodetic signs in the world are built from several specific points, mainly observatories, which can determine their exact coordinates by the stars.

Today, because of the widespread use of GPS, such geodetic network, the creation of which required a long time and considerable financial resources have become virtually useless and are not actually used. But, for example, for aviation  survey markers were useless before because they are not visible from height and radio signal they do not send. Therefore, both before and now, the pilots fly along directions paving the route from one point to another.

Flight map of pilot, greatly simplified n can be described as follows: "I take off, take a course of 120 degrees to the south-east and fly over it 500 km. Then, turn on 20 degrees to the east and fly another 300 miles. See the final airport, I come in to land and land. "In reality, of course, everything is a bit more complicated, but the general principle is approximately such. For routing, the navigator needs only the initial and final coordinates of air harbors and for landing, if there is no electronics, the pilot must see the runway.

Today coordinates of all airports are known and there is no routing problems. But, if there is no possibility to determine at what point exactly on the globe you are, for example, on unknown island in the ocean, and there are no any familiar landmarks, you simply will not know which way to fly with all consequences.

And, if you imagine an astronaut in an aircraft over unfamiliar planet on which there is no any guidance except unfamiliar relief the task of moving in the right direction becomes almost unsolvable problem in spite of its apparent simplicity. Because you do not have the coordinates, where you are and you cannot determine them, because there is no corresponding system, you cannot set the direction for the flight. You cannot explain devices what you need to reach that little lake, then fly round those mountains, behind which should be the approximate landing place. Therefore, you can navigate only visually controlling the means of transport by hand.

Because there is no geographic coordinate system on Mars the rover cannot determine its exact location relatively to other points, which there are no respectively too. There are no satellites, survey markers, nothing except the Sun, which moves differently than on Earth. That is why we have to control the rover manually, watching terrain through the camcorder while on the Earth even primitive drones are able to deliver a pizza by given coordinates. Rover has no coordinates and we can give it the direction only pointing to a specific point, which we and rover see.

 Members of studies of Mars laboratory, which includes drivers of rovers and scientists carry out the test of rover model of next generation in the desert near Baker, California. (Reuters / Gene Blevins)
On Mars, there are no survey markers, satellites, observatories, etc., but a coordinate system there is you can see it for example, in the application Google Mars. Why did it happen, from where appeared prime meridian? It turns out it was simply appointed as well as on the Earth having selected crater Airy as zero (Airy). The crater was named after Sir George Biddell Airy (George Biddell Airy), who bore the title of the 7th Royal astronomer. It was he, who in 1850 supervised with the construction of the meridian circle of the Greenwich observatory. It is how everything is interconnected.

This Martian coordinate system is fully conventional and exists only as a 3D computer model. Yes, we can explain to each other, where is a specific point, but we can see it only on the screen. For example, another civilization arriving to Mars, will choose as a zero another crater and we will not be able to explain to each other where is a particular object on the planet.

Therefore, when the stage of planet development will require frequent and precise movements over it, it is indispensable the creation of navigation system. To do this it will be necessary to create anchor points on the planet available for observations with known coordinates. For moving on a limited space it will be enough a small local network and if to fly over the entire planet it will be necessary to create a planetary network. It is necessary only to decide how to do it better.

On professional surveyors forum was put such a question - "Geodesy and cartography from zero. How? " the meaning of which lies in the fact - how to start learning a new planet in space having no reference points, and coordinate systems.

This seemingly simple question caused a lively and interesting discussion during which professionals did not come to a consensus, what demonstrates once again the complexity of the problem. As an example, we will give a post in which one of the participants of the forum offers his solution of the problem.

"Since the moment of landing all works should be immediately divided into two types: geodetic support of area development and geodesy as a science (we will not distort the language, leave the word as a tribute to the tradition of the Earth).

1. Development of the territory. It is necessary to create a primary general plan of development. Since there are no any data on the curvature of ellipsoid, as well as, it is not clear where the North is (compass is not considered because we do not know the magnetic declination), it seems logical to start building "from the center." Stake (for ages - and then as a monument will leave) a point on the hill (providing of visibility to the maximum distance from this point is implied) and to say: "here is 0 of coordinate system." Next, find the most-distant point (on the mountain of course), build on it the first signal and say that the direction to it - it's a zero direction and axis Y, axis X can be find by rotating. Having a primary coordinate system will send an army of surveyors with total stations to create the master plan of area (here and UAV can be connected). We believe that Plyuk  is flat (curvature parameters are not known to us).

Yes, we will get distortions as the distance from the zero point, but within the neighboring developments they are not critical (building density we determine with increasing of reserve as the distance from the center). Parallel to this, create a primary geodetic network with laying of signs and construction of towers.

2. Initial study of planet surface and data collection in order to obtain the required geodetic parameters. Send planes with AFA on maximum possible distances in all directions for a total shooting of area. Make photomaps of terrain (photo-plan is out of question), along which we can navigate somehow (primarily along natural landmark).

Straining programmers for writing programs in order to transform the images on areas of overlap (it will increase somehow initial accuracy of images joining). Using photo- maps look for places of observatories stowage and put astronomers there to observe the movements of celestial bodies and create a map of the starry sky (do not forget that on another planet stars shine in another). During the year collect information about change of seasons, changing day length, movement of natural satellites of the planet (if such there are) determine orientation of stars in different parts of the planet. On the basis of these data we can already begin to calculate the primary constants and determine the necessary values for further work, as well as to determine somehow in what hemisphere and at what distance from the equator there is our zero point. "

Today, we can assume that there are civilizations in space, for which interplanetary travel is a common thing, but nevertheless, and they will have some difficulties moving over the planet. Agree, in order to find the right spot on the vast and unfamiliar planet, for example, location of a small base is a daunting task, at any level of technology. Try to find on satellite map any object without resorting to coordinates, using only relief and you'll understand everything.

Therefore, if the planet is important and is often visited for quality navigation, it is necessary to make marks that is create on the surface reference points, which could be continuously observed. How to make such points "visible", it is another question from the field of technology.

In modern coordinate system, each point is obtained as the intersection of a certain latitude along X axis and a certain longitude along Y axis. To all points on the planet we assigned the name understandable only to us - coordinates. Therefore, our coordinate system is subjective and gives possibility to orientate on the planet only for earthlings.

Even if representatives of other civilizations will want to use our navigation systems they will not be able to use them and most importantly it will be virtually useless. Since in order to fly somewhere you first need to find manually the right spot on our map and find  out its coordinates then determine their position in our system, and then lay route.

Also will be required coordinates of our base stations frequencies at which they are working and much more. But, recently, there were no stations on the Earth,  flyings over the planet had place much earlier.

There is another interesting moment in our geodetic networks. Reference points, which we use do not allow by one of them to determine where are others between them there is no logical connection. Each point as it "knows" and broadcasts only its exact coordinates to system. Watching several such points it is possible to determine mathematically its location in space. If there are no coordinates of reference points, they become useless because in their location there is no logical system, except for some specific rules, with which govern the placement of geodetic marks.

If now "from zero " to start creation of navigation system on the Earth it would be possible to set all geodetic stations on the planet according to a certain system , for example, a symmetric one, in which the position of one point would logically followed from another. Then, watching any of the points it would be possible to determine where all the others are and move over the planet without resorting to the coordinate system.

For example, we could, counting from the same Greenwich, through 10 degrees to construct pivot points, marking the meridians, and also to do with the latitude. Or place points at the vertices of regular geometric shapes, constructed from a starting point. If you build the right system, geometrically tied to the ball, such a system will be universal and understandable to all.

For the globe in any system of calculation will act certain constants which will always be the same. For example, the ratio of diameter to the circumference is Pi, division the globe into equal parts is the golden section and division of the circle on right angles, which can be constructed with a compass and a ruler. The most reasonable is universal navigation system which would not depend on  characteristics of a civilization, measurement systems and other variant factors.

If to put a hypothetical task of creation on the planet of reference geodetic network, which is understandable to all it would be logical to assume the physical parameters of the planet, and place reference points in places, which are connected with the spherical geometry of globe. Of course, in order to the points were available for a very long time the objects, which will be denoted on the planet would be monumental withstand any disaster strikes for millennia.

On  any globe-shape planet which rotates, there are always two points on the surface these are poles formed by the axis of planet  rotation and one line - the equator the plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of globe rotation. Now, in order to set coordinate system it is necessary to build another line perpendicular to the equator - the zero meridian passing through the poles and another point on the surface, which will zero point.

Here we will have to go back again to the original question where will pass the prime meridian and in what particular place on the planet begin to build the first point? The fact is that even if the system will be symmetrical it will be necessary to put the first point on the globe from which to begin counting on the planet.

This point like fixs spinning globe and will provide an opportunity to build any coordinate system on it. Therefore, the point "zero" must be not only clearly visible, but logically justified. Such one in order to anyone could identify it based only on geographic parameters of the planet.

If the planet has oceans and seas, there is a meridian, which has part passing along the land, will be maximum long. Also there is a point located in the geographical center of the Earth. But, these parameters are not constant and will change gradually with decreasing or increasing the level of the oceans. Therefore, having determined geographic center of the planet and having built in this place a zero mark we only fix the position of center in time. But, on system of orientation this circumstance will not have effect, because it will be zero mark from which it is possible to keep count.

Modern geographical center of the Earth is in the point with coordinates - 40 ° 52'00 of "north latitude and 34 ° 34'00" of east longitude. This place is situated in south-eastern Turkey in five hundred kilometers from the Great Pyramid. It was recently made an interesting study, which found that if global sea levels would rose on 178 meters, the geographical center of the planet would move on the Giza plateau. See. Article "Giza Plateau, the Center of the Earth."

By a remarkable coincidence Great Pyramid (GP) set in the center of the geometric square formed with delta of  Nile, is located also on the longest passing overland meridian and as it turned out, approximately in geographical center of the Earth, including the Americas and Antarctica.

The Nile delta is perfectly visible from space, and as an arrow points to the desired point. But, most importantly, the GP is located on 30th latitude and the distance from it to the center of Earth is equal to the distance to the North Pole. Thus, the pyramid is the apex of an equilateral triangle with a side length corresponding to radius of Earth.

In addition, the point located on the 30th parallel, divides its meridian into 6 equal parts, i.e. in the ratio of hexagram, which can be constructed by ruler and compass.

In one word Great Pyramid is an ideal object to start counting located in the right place. And most importantly - it is already built. Apparently so pyramids are such huge and stand for thousands of years still performing the function of  zero point, to discover which it is possible.

So, having chosen as zero point Great Pyramid in Giza, we can only see how relatively to it are located other not less mysterious constructions of planet and to determine whether they are located in logical laws.

Owing to hexagram, beginning from the equator, we can determine, where pass the 30th (GP) and the 60th parallels, which denotes Alexander Column in St. Petersburg. Palace square, on which stands the monument is located in 45 km from the intersection of the 60th latitude with meridian of GP. If for the prime meridian accept meridian of Great Pyramid, the initial coordinate system will look as it is shown in the image.

Then construct perpendicular to meridian of GP, and thus divide the equator into 4 equal parts by 90 degrees. Having divided obtained sectors in half we will get meridians - 45*.

Thus, we have divided the circumference of equator on 8 equal parts, i.e. according to octagon, which can also be constructed with a compass and a ruler.

Having divided equator on 8 parts and prime meridian on 12, we created a simple framework, which can serve as the basis for all further constructions. Rotating the frame in one direction or another we can combine zero meridian with the right point and determine at once where are all the other points, unless of course, they were pre-built. Therefore, for our specialists possibly has sense to look for on 30th latitude of Mars remarkable object, or to think where it can be, given the fact that Mars has no oceans.

We can combine such frame with Greenwich, in which case it will coincide with modern coordinate system. And if now, we would have to set our base stations according to a certain system, starting from the initial frame, then by one of them could be determined where are all the others.

About the fact, that many monumental buildings are located on the planet for a particular system it has been written quite a lot, including on our website.

In the article "GEODESY OF MERIDIANS." we told about the fact that  meridians such known objects as Tiwanaku, Teotihuacan, Easter Island, Uluru, Baalbek, Lhasa and Samaipata are located, starting from prime meridian of GP, a multiply to 5 and 10 degrees. Therefore, they set on Earth correct meridional network.

All of these structures, as well as many other similar objects can serve as navigation support points especially because they already proved their ability to withstand the elements, and still provide excellent benchmarks. If we find geometric laws in their location it means that ancient objects were built on particular system, in certain places according to the original design.

Indeed, such laws exist, and about many of them was written in the "HISTORICAL GEODESY." and "LAWS OF SYSTEM." On all continents and some islands, by placing key points in the right places on the globe was created geometrically correct system in which all the buildings are interconnected geometrically and also with starting point - the Great Pyramid.

Such system does not depend on measurement methods and is tied to globe with mathematical constants.  The position of desired point in it is determined not with coordinates X and Y, but as the direction - azimuth and distances, built from key points, which are pyramids and other ancient monumental structures. The same thing do pilots today, paving the route.

If come back to original frame and build from Great Pyramid diagonals of convex rectangles, we will find that on these lines lie such well-known objects as Uluru, Easter Island Angkor, Nan Madol and the Chinese pyramids and with very high accuracy.
Thus, we get symmetrical navigation system, which sets the most mysterious structures on Earth, acting as a reference point.
To original frame also is tied the line of GP - Stonehenge, which is the diagonal of two convex segments, symmetric relatively to equator.
Having divided the angle 45 * in half from the line of GP - Stonehenge we can build one more symmetric network.

Intersections of lines in this network give latitude 40 * ... and latitude of Tiwanaku. If 40 latitude in this case is obtained with laws of spherical geometry, the Tiwanaku latitude passes through the intersection of lines because the Tiwanaku is built in the right place.

Location of Tiwanaku is unique at all. Besides the fact that its meridian lies in 100 degrees from meridian of GP, as well as meridian of Uluru, its latitude and participates in other symmetric networks, built from Great Pyramid.

Thus the most famous and mysterious structures on the Earth are located on the globe not chaotic, they are interrelated and are erected in strictly defined  places on a single project. Owing to such mutual arrangement of the key objects you can move over the planet without resorting to the coordinate system, guided by the directions.

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