Last time in the press and on the Internet pages appears more and more information that secret of Palpa and Nazka geoglyphs is solved. Thereby the public opinion is misled, as actually not one of researches today approached neither to solution of geogives missing nor to a method of their performance, except for a possible way of drawing by moving of stones and uncovering of more light layer of soil under them. All conclusions made about it are based only on assumptions, but not on accurate proofs. Today as the basic version officially is declared that lines and figures served to the ancient people for discharge of water cult and the processions asking gods about sending rain ostensibly followed them Even such respective edition as «National geographic» considers this version rather plausible. Meanwhile, it does not tolerate even the superficial criticism. The matter is that the quantity and extent of the lines is such that it is possible to round globe once with them at least. It means that throughout the centuries all activity of a local civilization should be directed only for geoglives creation. In which connection they should clear away from stones the area approximately about a football ground daily and thus do not trample surrounding areas on which trace remains for ever.

Considering that the area occupied with the geoglives makes more than three thousand square kilometers and some elements are removed from each other in 50-70 km. simply to reach a place of works, it should be problematic. In this case according to logic to the majority of not crossing images should be tread a great number of roads and footpaths, which as you understand there are. No.

Appears a simple and reasonable question- for what it was necessary to spend so much energy throughout the centuries for achievement of not guaranteed result when with much smaller efforts it was possible to create irrigational system of any complexity which, by the way, is available and represents completely not simple engineering constructions with tunnels, channels, wells and so on.

The way of images drawing by moving of stones from the central part to the borders of lines looks more or less plausibly, but it is also not so simple here. The matter is that there are a lot of lines and figures formed in other ways. For example, there are images, created by gathering of stones on the borders of lines without uncovering of internal space, there are figures and lines formed with points-small groups of stones with the extent of hundred meters.

All these problem questions and non-fitments are obvious to any sane person and lie so to say on the surface, but there are also other, more difficult moments to estimate which in the full measure can only experts. Basically these questions concern marking of desert for the subsequent drawing of images. It is obvious that lines and geometrical figures are put not chaotically and represent the certain general semantic complex subordinated to certain logic, unfortunately, till not accessible for us. To any expert, for example, the geodesist it is clear that to mark such area, such quantity of lines, figures and drawings with such amazing accuracy, with even pegs is an enormous amount of works hard-hitting today, even with application of modern measuring devices. Here, as well as in a missing question public opinion is focused basically on creation of drawings though their quantity is scanty in comparison with lines and figures, and the sizes do not exceed in most cases one hundred meters. To create such images though is difficult, but nevertheless is easier, than to spend, for example, ideally straight lines of some kilometers, especially if they in regular intervals approach on all extent.

For example we will consider quotation from an article, characteristic for this sort of publications.

 « As it was already marked, the most part of drawings in Naska is put with continuous and not crossed lines. Perhaps, it was a consequence of any feature of way of lines tracing? Such question has pushed American Joe Nikkolla, the Lecturer of university in Kentucky State to a thought about possible reconstruction of huge images. Nikkolla read M.Rajhe's book and was agreed with her point of view according to which ancient artists should draw preliminary sketches on the soil necessarily i.e. prototypes of drawings, in strongly reduced scale. And it is true, hardly distinguishable traces of such sketches were found in several places, their sizes are about meter, and they are executed sideways from the basic image. »

First, it causes very big doubts, at once, the fact that it is possible something to draw on the soil with accuracy sufficient for transfer and measurements and the more so that the meter image has remained up to now. Secondly, in order to do the sketch in any scale, it is necessary to have concept of scale which is impossible without presence of accurate measuring system and certain mathematical knowledge. The measuring system should allow to scale basically, i.e. to have the ordered set of measuring -units - 10 mm = 1 sm, 100 sm = 1 m, etc., in which connection all it should be put with high accuracy on the measuring tool like a roulette because with any cords with small knots, such accuracy, on such distances it is impossible to achieve. From mathematical knowledge the concept of proportion without which transfer is not possible basically in principle. Let us go further.

Now, when if they wish to increase the drawing, usually divide it into squares. On the place of a future copy draw a network of the necessary scale and transfer there a detail behind a detail. The way is so simple that the assumption itself about its application to the artists of the remote past arose. However Nikkoll strongly doubted, whether it is so. At the same time he leant against his private experience, when Nikkoll was a student he earned additionally in manufacturing of big advertising stands. At that time he convinced that the method of squares is not always effective, it does not guarantee absolute accuracy of reproduction.

Here comments in general are unnecessary as for transfer at first it should to line desert kilometers in correct small squares, therefore doubts are quite proved.

As considered Nikkoll, in Nazka the different way - a method of co-ordinates of separate points of drawing is used. And he has decided to spend experimental check of his hypothesis. As field laboratory has been chosen the extensive not cultivated field on an area belonging to a friend of Nikkolla’s father. The teacher from Kentucky State intended to reproduce one of the largest and most difficult drawings of Naska, the condor's image. At first the sketch of a bird has been made with an axial line going from beak to tail plumage. On the contour of the drawing have been planned about 200 points, allowing to transfer all silhouette. From every point have lowered a perpendicular to an axis and have measured distance between the point and its projection to axes. Thus have defined the co-ordinates for all points which meanings could be increased in any number of times. At increasing the same unit of length which managed to be found Marias Rajhe has been used. From comparison of the lines sizes she has found that ancient artists worked with a measure equaling 322 mm (it is a bit more than English foot which is 304, 8 mm). A measure was named «American Indian foot».Nikkolla has prepared some primitive tools, such ones which, undoubtedly, could be Indians in the past. First of all have chosen cords of different length. On all cords have put marks with paint they went through intervals in ten «American Indian foots». And every piece in 100 foots marked with knot. Then have built the elementary cross from two wooden bars, it should serve for lines transfer perpendicular to an axis. And, at last, reserved with wooden pegs, it was assumed to hammer them in points on the contour of drawing and in places of their projections to axes. Early in the morning on August, 6th, 1982 the brigade of Nikkolla (his father and two nephews entered into it) left for the field. Work went well. In total for 9 hours had time to spend the main axis, to mark it and to put by means of cords the landmarks designating the most part of points of drawing. By the evening was rain it poured all next week. When the sky has cleared up, experiment in field laboratory has renewed. In total on huge condor have spent no more than 30 hours. Unique difference from the original in Nazka consisted that did not remove the top layer of soil. Instead of a way from a point to a point traced with lime. When condor was ready, Nikkoll has agreed with the owner of the sports plane living in the neighborhood about air photography. Drawing have photographed from height in of 300 m.Captious comparison of the printed pictures with photos of the original image of condor in Nazka certified that it is possible to consider coincidence ideal. Now, necessary to believe the science has answers questions about that who and how has executed drawings in Nazka.

Here we will note the following moments - a concept of co-ordinates, an axial line, a projection, a proportion (increase in any quantity of times) has appeared and the ordered set of measure units was in general artificial adjusted(10 American Indian foots, 100 foots). Further it is necessary to pay attention to the following phrase which besides forms and opinion that drawings are the most unusual and difficult in Nazka geoglives: «… The lecturer from Kentucky State intended to reproduce one of the largest and most difficult drawings of Nazka ,the condor image We will consider another image in Nazka,desert, in comparison with which «huge condor » (110 х 120 m.) simply children's drawing. This image is not advertised anywhere especially it is clear, as only it one actually proves that Palpa and Nazka geoglives could not be put by ancient natives, or they possessed such knowledges and possibilities that level of their civilization was compared with ours.


This geoglyph occupies the space more than one square kilometer and is situated in a southern part of Nazka plateau in 30 kilometers from the central group of images. Drawing is put on enough cross-country terrain that has not confused ancient artists and has affected neither straightforwardness of lines, nor an accuracy of all composition. Probably it was necessary to put the image in this place. Here just that case when figures are formed only by lines, without bearing of internal space. On area the image looks so.


Let's try to analyze the image of geoglyph . Drawing consists of several correct geometrical figures of the trapezoid form crossed zigzag strips with width 13 m and with several straight lines. The length of biggest, central "arrow" from which narrow part of zigzag begins, is 940 m. Obviously that all geoglif represents an uniform composition bearing the general semantic charging. Lines of trapezes are crossed among themselves not chaotically but in strictly certain places. Especially well it is visible in the top left part of drawing where two trapezes are crossed on a zigzag line. The wide trapeze in the central part begins from the party of another trapeze and a strip of zigzag, passing through crossing of a big arrow and a zigzag strip with its left part .There are a lot of such laws in drawing and all of them tell about unity of all group. Besides the image has certain orientation on planes relatively the other geometrical figures surrounding it. So all group looks on the area.


Orientation one of zigzag strips on crossing of two trapezes in the next group of images is shown with a yellow line .What is interesting, the length of a line from the point of intersection of three lines of the geoglif right part to the point of intersection in a right group of images, is exactly 3000 m. Plus "on the way" the line passes through the corner of the other trapeze SB9L54 (it is shown with light) focused on centre SC1L27. The line which as you understand actually, there is no is divided with this figure in two segments 1616 and 1384 m. accordingly. Also the orientation line crosses one more arrow the distance to which from the point of intersection in the zigzag is 900 m. In this case the segment in 3000 m. is divided with this trapeze in the ratio 7:3. Besides, the bent strip (SB9L67) in a right group of figures, also is focused with its bottom part on crossings in «big zigzag», and the distance up to the first crossing, from the beginning of bend is 3000 m.too.


Moreover, if to continue this line further it will show on crossing of two trapezes removed from beginning of the line already in 17 440 m. So all group of images settles down on the area. With white line orientation of the bent strip is shown.


Lower in the increased scale it is shown, how the line passes through "not connected" groups of images.

The line beginning (SB9L67) "The Big zigzag" The End of lines (центр SC1L27)

Thus, already on the basis of these data it is possible to assert that these groups of geoglives represent the interconnected structures.

But we will return to «the big zigzag» and we will look, as it is possible to transfer the given image on the area from the preliminary sketch without which simply do not manage because geoglif creation of such sizes «from a head» simply is not possible. Sketch performance at once has enough big problems. If to use a method of an axial line the sketch tracing on the soil in small scale is impossible because the quantity of projective lines will be so that if to construct all of them, the plot of land will turn simply to the ploughed up site. If to do the sketch in the bigger scale, all lines will be trampled at measurements, plus as it was already told, "the terrestrial" accuracy necessary for transfer is obviously not enough.

But let us assume that the sketch all the same is created. We will consider what will require for image transfer with modern methods. The first that will be necessary to do, it to measure on the sketch all corners and distances. Further, if not to use existing system of co-ordinates, it is necessary to create the, conditional system, minimum from three-four refer points and to define their exact position to each other. Then by means of a protractor and a ruler to define position of all geoglif key points concerning every refer points of conditional system of co-ordinates. After all as the corners and distances became known, it is possible to leave for the field. At first, by means of electronic tachymeter on the area are taken out refer points, and an accuracy of their putting to each other is checked, corners and distances for this purpose are measured, trigonometrically functions are used. After that in turn standing up on refer points, with help of tachymeter corners are set, and the distance to each geoglif key point is set its position on area, thus, is defined. In which connection all these actions are necessarily to do, at least, on three refer points, differently it is impossible to define an error and accuracy accordingly do not achieve. For creation of parallel bent contours, knowledge of stationing transfer to a curve and trigonometrically functions is necessary. Calculation of the centers position is necessary also, and considering that curves do not represent correct circles, linearly to take out them on area is very difficult.

Taking into consideration the circumstance that the area is enough crossed and in direct visibility in most cases, most likely, the problem becomes complicated at once in times. It will be necessary to put intermediate points on dominating heights and from them to build points in lowlands.

Thus, the marking problem of the image on area, for instance, with pegs, completely is not simple and today. It is clear that using system GPS everything can be made faster and easier, but we have decided that we have no co-ordinates .Provided that a brigade include four persons, the optical equipment, a tachometer , a big roulette, a compass, the knowledge of trigonometry, and also means of transportation( because distances are not small) and is desirable the computer with geodetic programs are required. In this case, without considering time for preparation, in an emergency order it is possible to execute a marking for one and a half - two months.

Let us have a look now whether it is possible to do the given work with handicraft methods and what for this purpose is required in any case. Notice at once that only the method of projective transfer allows doing this without corners and trigonometrically functions. But also in this case, without right angles we do not manage, and their exact construction with distances in hundreds meters, especially by means of two bars is not obviously possible. Hence, natives could divide a circle into corners, measure them and put on the areas with very high accuracy.

To put easier straight line on the area also is not simple. Today to make it without special devices is possible only in one way. On a point to which it is necessary to come a landmark is put, at the beginning point stands an observer and seeing the landmark in the final point corrects position of assistant in an alignment between themselves and the final landmark. Today it occurs as follows. The observer looks in the optical device, for example a theodolite in eyepiece of which there is a cross with divisions, having combined a vertical line with the final landmark, he speaks to the assistant on a portable radio set where is necessary to move an intermediate landmark (more to the right or more to the left). As soon as the intermediate landmark appears in an alignment, the observer speaks "stop" and the assistant marks the point on a straight line. Now let us think, whether the ancient observer will see with simple sight the landmark which is from him on a distance one kilometer and how he will correct the assistant, with waves of hands or will send to him a messenger. It is possible to put certainly the assistant on accessible distance, but thus, in any case it is necessary to see a final landmark and that accuracy from which the lines are put this method does not achieve.

Stated above the arguments are quite enough to understand that construction of such difficult figure, such sizes, on a cross-country terrain is not possible without special knowledge, elementary devices and system of co-ordinates. Orientation of a line to the point located on a distance in three kilometers and furthermore in 17 km. Is impossible at all without a laying of theodolitic course and presence as a minimum of local co-ordinate system.

From all aforesaid a simple and unequivocal conclusion follows: Either the ancient civilization of Naska possessed corresponding knowledge and possibilities, or geoglives have been created not them. Therefore, till it will not appear more or less adequate explanation how the desert was marked, to say that its secret is solved, at least, prematurely.

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