Publications  The Sahara geoglyphs 16.12.2018. Part 1. Background

The Sahara geoglyphs

Part 1. Background

геоглиф нлоIt is generally believed that the entire surface of our planet has long since been photographed  studied thoroughly. It would seem there are no white spots or unexplored places left on Earth. But it turns out this is far from true. Today, thanks to modern technologies, it has become possible to make amazing discoveries, literally, without leaving home. Every now and then we hear that another city has been discovered in the jungle, another temple detected underground, a new pyramid found. And these discoveries made with the help of modern technology keep happening. This time, a new phenomenon has been revealed, the scale of which has yet to be estimated. Both physically and historically.

Many people know that there is a huge number of ancient buildings and other artificial objects on Earth, whose creation cannot be explained in the framework of the official history of our civilization. The most famous of them, of course, are the pyramids on the plateau of Giza, numerous temples and some other buildings of Egypt. No less known are Stonehenge, Baalbek, Nan Madol, Tiwanaku, Teotihuacan, the statues of the Easter Island and, of course, a unique phenomenon - the geoglyphs on the Nazca Plateau.

Now this series can be safely amplified with new images on the surface of the Earth - the Sahara geoglyphs, which by some parameters exceed the geoglyphs on the Nazca Plateau and Palpa. Therefore, in a certain sense, the latter ones will have to share their uniqueness with the geoglyphs of the Sahara desert, practically unknown until recently.

But the situation has changed, and today we can speak with full confidence about the discovery of yet another striking phenomenon - geoglyphs in the Sahara desert, which will be extremely difficult and most likely impossible to explain in the framework of the academic version of history.

At the moment, this is what can be said about the Sahara geoglyphs:

1. They are surely geoglyphs. I.e., they surely are artificially created objects on the surface of the Earth in the form of images of certain symbols, which can only be fully viewed from a height.

2. Their number is huge. To date, as part of the GeoLines.ru project, over 20,000 individual characters have been exactly located. And it looks like it is only the beginning.

3. Geoglyphs occupy a huge area, more than 2 million square kilometers. The distance between the individual elements is more than 2000 km in the latitudinal direction, and more than 1000 km in the meridional direction.

4. The sizes of geoglyphs range from a few meters to several hundred meters. The perimeter of some images is more than 1 km. But the bulk of geoglyphs has dimensions of about 30 to 60 meters.

5. In most cases, images of symbols on the surface of the desert are laid out with stones, most likely collected in the area. The exact origin of the material from which the geoglyphs are made can only be determined after studying it at the site.

6. All geoglyphs, with a very high probability, are an integral system, and are interrelated, both between themselves and with other objects of the System of Ancient Monumental Structures (SAMS).

7. In the arrangement of symbols relative to each other, the same principles are observed as in the arrangement of other objects of the SAMS. Due to this, the Sahara geoglyphs make it possible to determine very accurately cardinal directions and the direction to some of the key points of the System.

Now to the in-depth presentation. It all started with a video found in the open spaces of the network, in which several mysterious symbols were shown, laid out of stones on the surface of the desert, resembling the image of a keyhole. The presence of such unusual and obviously artificial objects in a lifeless desert immediately attracted attention, and prompted the idea that these structures can be navigational landmarks, which in the end was confirmed.
Один из геоглифов, показанных в видео
One of the geoglyphs shown in the video.
Since the coordinates could be revealed on some of the photos in the above video, it was no big deal to find these specific objects in the area. The first checks for the compliance of the mutual location of the discovered structures with the general principles for constructing the System, as well as for communication with key points of the SAMS, gave positive results. But no one could even have imagined at that time that there were many more such structures, and that it was still very far from finding a real relation with other objects of the Pyramid System.

Next, quite intuitively, the area around the detected symbols was surveyed. As a result, in just a few hours, several dozen more such symbols were found. The foot of one of the hills was simply “dotted” with uniform geoglyphs. All the newly found objects were located rather compactly in the area of the Tassili’n-Ajjer Plateau, famous for its petroglyphs.

Over the next few days, several hundred more of the same type of characters were discovered, and their number was rapidly approaching a thousand. It became clear that it was a completely new phenomenon, generally unknown until then. There was no other information to be found at that time, but the mentioned video and several photos on the ground.

Ещё один типичный геоглиф - SK 873 похожий на замочную скважину.
Another typical “keyhole” geoglyph - SK 873
Gradually, in the process of searching for new geoglyphs, next to the usual “keyholes” of various shapes, atypical characters began to appear, which at first were not perceived as geoglyphs at all, since they often simply merged with the surrounding relief. By the way, this is one of the main answers to the reasonable question: “Why wasn’t such a number of geoglyphs discovered before?”. Although there are certainly other reasons, too.

The new symbols resembled a drop in shape, with two straight beams emanating from it. And had they not been located next to the symbols already known, and had one not known it was necessary to look for unusual shapes in principle, then it would have been very difficult to find them. Often, on finding one geoglyph, it was almost impossible to understand that it was a geoglyph, without comparing it with similar symbols nearby.

But when it became clear that there were other forms of symbols, and what exactly should be looked for, new geoglyphs rained down in great numbers. Over several months, more than 8,000 objects were discovered, among which there were true giants over a kilometer in length and genuine masterpieces of design art.

Геоглиф S 3246, напоминающий каплю с двумя лучами или классический НЛО
S 3246 geoglyph - resembling a drop with two rays, or a classic UFO.
Initially, a clear tendency towards the slopes of hills and deltas of sandy rivers began to appear in the arrangement of the symbols. But gradually it became clear that this is only one of the main location criteria, and geoglyphs can be located anywhere, regardless of the terrain, as is the case in the Nazca desert, too. Therefore, we had to literally comb through about half of the vast territory of the central Sahara the scale of the map being 60 to 100 meters, in which the geoglyphs are clearly visible. The second half of the Sahara on Google Earth maps is given in low resolution  satellite imagery that currently does not allow detecting anything.

Thus, in the process of searching for geoglyphs, two main types of symbols have manifested: the “keyhole” one mentioned above, and a new kind of symbols, which can be described as a point with a pair of rays emanating from it. These rays can take different forms, have different thickness and directions, but almost always it is a point and two rays emanating from it.
We are going to discuss each type of geoglyphs in more detail later on, and now let us take a look at the geoglyphs of the Sahara as a whole.

To begin with, why are they really geoglyphs, and not, for instance, burials or other religious constructions? Firstly, the answer to this question is quite obvious. Suffice it to see a few hundred images for all doubts to disappear by themselves. The symbols are slightly different, but clearly similar. And gradually the eye very quickly begins to look for them, even within the monotonous relief. Secondly, the very shape of the geoglyphs leaves no doubt as to their artificiality. Thirdly, the number of the geoglyphs is huge and they are located in a lifeless desert, and it would make a huge problem to build an acceptable official version explaining the origin of these objects.

The Sahara gives no conditions not only for such colossal construction works, but even for mere survival. There is no water, no soil, no animals or vegetation, just a hot and horrible climate. Sometimes the surface of the earth warms up to 70 to 80 degrees Centigrade, and average daily temperatures can reach 40° C. All life is centered around small and rare oases with scarce sources of water.

Of course, this was not always the case, but according to scientists, this situation has lasted for at least the past few millennia. Therefore, in these places, it is considered a great success to find traces of human activity of a few hundred years ago. Hence the excitement caused by the cave paintings discovered by Henri Lhote on the Tassili n'Ajjer Plateau, attributed to more than a thousand years ago, and Great Zimbabwe dating back to over 700 years ago. Now, here are the Sahara geoglyphs, which are also clearly not just a couple of hundred years old.

The problem is that there is no one to create them in principle, especially in such quantity. There is no civilization, especially with a power capable of such a gigantic construction in such extreme conditions, to which it would be safe to attribute the creation of the geoglyphs. But what is most important, there is no explainable purpose for their creation within the official version of the history of this region. Traditionally, the few objects found next to habitable places are considered ancient graves of great leaders. Moreover, the age of the buildings is determined to be several thousand years, and it is reported that only men were buried in them.

But excuse me, this story may be true for a few dozen objects, not for tens of thousands. If these massive stone structures are considered graves, then the entire central Sahara is just one big cemetery. And how come there could be such a lot of rulers in a lifeless desert? To bury mere mortals in such a way would be impermissible luxury, and again, where could they have sprung from?

There is one more thing. There are relatively few objects of the “keyhole” type, which somehow can be attributed to burials, about one and a half thousand. The bulk of the geoglyphs are objects of a different type, shaped like a crescent, which do not look like graves at all. Sometimes, it's just a flat image, slightly different from the adjacent ground. How can one attribute to burial an image of a UFO consisting of only lines, or a thin parabola with a slight extension in the center a few hundred meters long?

In short, the official version of burials or places of worship does not work, which is quite obvious. Whatever one may say, but in fact, the geoglyphs of the Sahara, are another direct proof of the activity of a different mind on our planet.

As we have already mentioned, there is a huge number of geoglyphs. At the moment, there have been found and exactly located more than 20,000 objects accurately identified as artificial images on the surface. Errors, of course, are inevitable, but they will be very few compared to the total number of the objects. Perhaps just a few dozen.

Symbols that had immediately raised doubts about their artificial origin were entered into a separate folder and marked as possible geoglyphs. There are more than 400 such objects at the moment.

There is another type of objects, small and similar in size, looking like a stapler bracket, which at first were also not perceived as geoglyphs. But the situation cleared up when it turned out that there were surely more than 300 of such objects and they were often located next to the classical-type symbols.

Группа символов типа SC, напоминающих скобу для степлера
A group of SC-type symbols resembling a staple bracket.
In addition to the above types, there are atypical images that are not similar to each other or to the bulk of geoglyphs, which, nevertheless, are identified as geoglyphs and have some common features. They are usually found as single samples, and mostly present geometric symbols. There are about a hundred of such images.

In addition, not all parts of the desert with good resolution of satellite images have been thoroughly investigated. Sometimes, a re-survey of the area gives a few more geoglyphs, not  detected previously. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that in these areas one can find a few more hundreds, and possibly thousands of new objects.

Thus, at the moment, we know the exact location of more than 21,000 artificial objects of unknown origin, laid out in stone in the form of mysterious symbols that can only be distinguished from a great height.

But that's not all either. As already mentioned, there are vast areas of the Sahara desert having a weak resolution of satellite images on Google Earth maps, which does not allow to detect small details. These territories alternate with sites that are replete with geoglyphs. So, there is every reason to believe that areas with poor resolution also have geoglyphs. Most likely, in a not smaller quantity. Consequently, everyone interested may still make a discovery finding new characters as soon as the maps are updated.

In most cases, along with typical symbols, there are one or several geoglyphs in the form of small circles — points made of stones, which are also artificial objects, and, undoubtedly, are integral with the large images. A symbol in the form of a circle, denoting a point on the ground, is the simplest element of the Sahara geoglyphs. And although they are much smaller in size than other characters, as a rule, up to 10 meters in diameter, but there is a huge amount of them. Clearly more than all the characters of the other types together.

Geoglyphs in the form of points (dots), are found both individually and in small groups, and sometimes they occupy entire fields. But, as a rule, they are located close to parabolic geoglyphs. The pictures below show some typical examples of the arrangement of characters in the form of a dot.

In the first picture, there are two points located next to the symbols in the form of an arc. In such cases, only the location of the main geoglyph was registered, without assigning serial numbers to the points. The second image shows a single point, which is also a frequent case. In these cases, the numbers were assigned to the largest, clearly visible and obviously artificial objects. The third image shows a section with a cluster of different characters, most of which are points of different sizes. In such cases, the largest symbols were marked.

But the rest of the points are, after all, artificial structures too, which also require considerable effort to create them. But if you consider them too …

Две точки рядом с символами S 10825 и S 10826
Two points next to symbols S 10825 and S 10826
Одиночная точка SR 2467. Диаметр около 15 м
Single point SR 2467. The diameter is about 15 m.

   Скопление точек, среди которых имеются небольшие объекты в виде полумесяца
A cluster of points with  small objects in the form of a crescent among them.
Thus, the total number of geoglyphs can dramatically increase several times from the 20 thousand. But even what has already been discovered by now is quite enough to appreciate the tremendous work done by an unknown mind in the lifeless desert. And since the creation of Sahara's geoglyphs is in no way possible to attribute to our civilization, we are now in exactly the same situation as Robinson Crusoe found himself when he discovered an imprint of someone else's foot on "his" island.

The picture below shows the general location of the Sahara geoglyphs. Green characters are basically the keyhole-type symbols, and purple ones are modifications of the point image with two curved rays.

This map allows to visually assess the scope of the work done. Imagine that all the space from Moscow to St. Petersburg, including the adjacent areas, or the whole of France and Spain, is filled with artificial structures of various sizes made of massive stone with an average density of 1 or 2 objects per 100 km2. That is, on average, there is more than 1 structure in each 10x10 km square.

General map
At the moment, the location of all geoglyphs can be divided into 4 zones, the largest of which  the eastern one, has dimensions of more than 1000x1000 km. In this area there is a very high density and the bulk of the constructions - more than 14,000 objects. The accumulation of green dots is exactly the Tassili n’Ajjer Plateau, around which the symbols resembling a keyhole and large circles are mainly concentrated.

Of course, geoglyphs are not evenly spaced, and this is clearly visible on the map. In part, this is due to the fact that sections of maps with good resolution alternate with areas with poor resolution. As a rule, they are stretching in the meridional direction, hence vertical stripes of symbols.

With the growth of the number of detected symbols, as it was approaching to 8 thousand, there was a growing perplexity as to why such a large-scale phenomenon had not been found until now. Therefore, another attempt was made to search for information on the Internet on this topic. As a result, on one of the English-language sites with a bank of photos, hiveminer.com, images were found, the author of which, an extramatic user, had also identified similar objects as geoglyphs, and found them to resemble a crescent moon.  Indeed, many characters do look like a crescent moon or boomerang, which, by the way, is another case of two curved rays coming from a common center.

The image below shows two typical geoglyphs from this photobank. A total of about 80 images were shown on that site, revealing more than 200 geoglyphs, but there was no other information besides the images.
Геоглиф бумеранг
Geoglyph SR 12244
In most cases, the pictures were taken on a small scale, and geoglyphs could only be seen with a gaze. Many of the photographs contained coordinates, but it was not immediately possible to find these geoglyphs on the ground. And the reason is this.

All the geoglyphs found before were located east of the Greenwich meridian. Moreover, literally from 0° to 10° and more degrees of eastern longitude. Therefore, the search for new geoglyphs, automatically, due to carelessness, also began in the eastern hemisphere. Naturally, nothing was found. The point fell either on an empty space or on a plot with poor resolution. Of course, no one could have even suggested that geoglyphs of the same type could be located in the western hemisphere, a thousand kilometers off the array already discovered.

When, finally, it came to an understanding of where to look for new geoglyphs, not 200, but several thousand new objects were discovered. Above, on the general map, this zone is to the left, at the very top.

Lower, in the very west of the Sahara, not far from the Atlantic coast, there is another large group of geoglyphs, which was also discovered with the help of pictures from the above-mentioned gallery. It contained several symbols from this group. More than 3 thousand geoglyphs have been discovered in this zone. The famous structure of Richat (Eye of the Sahara) is also here, with more artificial objects found near it.

In the center of the map there is another small group of geoglyphs, which currently contains about a hundred objects. Thus, it can be assumed that there are some more undetected symbols in the adjacent territories, although not in such a quantity.

In the real location of geoglyphs on the ground, there are several obvious features. Very often geoglyphs are located on the slopes of small, but highly elongated hills, resembling mountain ranges, tens and sometimes hundreds of kilometers long. The image below shows one of the sections of such a chain with two typical S-type symbols. The next image, on a larger scale map, shows now entire groups of Sahara geoglyphs. Elongated chains of symbols are exactly the chains of small hills and stone outcrops. Blue lines show the boundaries of the territories with poor resolution of satellite images, where it is not yet possible to detect small objects.

As it is obvious from the map, the chains of geoglyphs break at these boundaries, and the ridge of hills goes on and on. This gives every reason to believe that the chains of symbols are also to be continued.
Геоглифы S 5932 и S 5933
Geoglyphs S 5932 и S 5933

The next image, a larger scale map, shows even whole groups of Sahara geoglyphs. Elongated chains of symbols are the very chains of small hills and stone outcrops. The blue lines show the boundaries of the territories with poor resolution of satellite images on which it is not yet possible to detect small objects.

The map clearly shows that the chains of geoglyphs break at these boundaries, and the ridge of hills continues further. This gives every reason to believe that the chains of symbols also do not stop here.
Скопление геоглифов типа S
A cluster of S-type geoglyphs

As can be seen in the image, almost all geoglyphs are concentrated mainly on higher elevations, which is quite logical from the point of view of their visibility. In the conditions of a desert, where all the lowlands are covered with sand, the geoglyphs should be located on hills, in places well blown by the wind, so they can be seen for a long time. One should also take into account the wind's direction and other details. Judging by the fact that the geoglyphs are still visible, they were placed with competence.

Often, symbols are located on small plateaus with eroded edges. The next picture shows one of these examples. Creating images laid out of massive stones in such conditions is an even more difficult task, because among other things, one also has to climb on a plateau.
Геоглиф S 8451, расположенный в центре небольшого плато. Длина лучей – более 150 м
Geoglyph S 8451, located in the center of a small plateau.  The length of the beams is more than 150 m.
The Sahara geoglyphs are highly different in size. There are objects of literally a few meters in size, and there are real giants with a perimeter of more than 1.5 km. The picture below shows one of these geoglyphs. Its perimeter is more than 1150 meters, and its area is approximately 700 square meters.
Геоглиф S 9637. Контуры обведены
S 9637 geoglyph.

There is a clear dependence: the larger the geoglyphs, the fewer they are, and vice versa, the smaller the sizes of symbols, the larger their number. But still, the largest number of geoglyphs has a size within a few tens of meters. As a rule, these are symbols elongated in the form of a sickle or crescent. Their width also decreases towards the ends, and ranges from a few meters to 10-15 meters.

Obviously, the construction of such massive objects in a lifeless desert, especially in such numbers, is far from a trivial task. Therefore, let's see what geoglyphs are made of and what they look like in reality.

But first, a few words should be said about the photographs taken by travelers in the area of the Tassili n’Ajjer Plateau. As already mentioned, several geoglyphs were discovered and even photographed a long time ago. But since there has been no information about these structures, and nothing is known about the scale of this phenomenon, these objects have been traditionally perceived as ritual or burial ones.

All images of geoglyphs on the ground were posted by their authors in the Google service - Panoramio, which has recently ceased to exist. All unsaved photos are gone. In this regard, all progressive humanity has suffered a great loss. All pictures of specific structures, in the service of Panoramio, were taken by ordinary people who were shooting all the most unusual things, boggling the mind, they did not wonder whether certain artifacts were in line with the official version of history or not. As a result, a unique bank of images was created with an exact binding to the terrain, which is no longer in the public domain.

Therefore, those few photos that have been saved in some miraculous way, actually several days before closing Panoramio, are today almost the only images of geoglyphs on the terrain, in close proximity. But now that the exact location of each geoglyph is known, there is hope that the situation will change soon.

The images below show the location of two keyhole-type symbols on the ground. In this case, they are geoglyphs SK 2 and SK 430. It is clearly seen that they are laid out from the surrounding stones. The size of the first character is approximately 35x45 meters, and the second is about 20 meters. But even with such sizes, it makes dozens, or even hundreds of tons of displaced stone mass.
Геоглиф Сахары Фото Faed CHADYROV

Так выглядят геоглифы типа SK в реальности Фото Faed CHADYROV
This is what  SK-type geoglyphs look like in reality.

The following image shows a small typical point with a diameter of just a few meters. But there are tens of thousands of such points scattered in the Sahara desert. Therefore, their construction is also a gigantic work. And as further studies have shown, they are not randomly arranged.

типичная точка

Below you can see what such points look like on satellite images

геоглифы САхары

As already mentioned, in essence, a circle is the simplest shape of the Sahara geoglyphs, from which all other shapes are formed. Sometimes, it is a proper circle, as shown above, sometimes it is a hill in the form of a small cone, sometimes - a round lined with stones. In some cases the diameter of these circles is as big as several tens of meters.

The following images below show one of these rounds, in the center of which there is another circle in the form of a conical hill. On the first photo you can see the real view of the geoglyph on the ground, and on the second, a space image.

Вид геоглифа типа SR на местности
SR-type geoglyphs as they can be seen on the ground      Photo unnamed

Вид из космоса
Their view from space
The real photo clearly shows that the whole area of the round is neatly lined with stones of approximately the same size. To do this, it was necessary to plan and align the entire site, collect the appropriate stones and deliver them to the construction site, and then carefully lay it all down. The diameter of this round is 40 m. The work on the creation of one such object is difficult and huge, and there are at least several hundreds of such circles.

It is also clear that this and other objects were built when this area was already an unpopulated desert, and therefore there was simply no one to build them. Moreover, for an ancient man such work in such conditions would be a task beyond his strength. But most importantly, there is no goal worth such feats.

The next two images show a symbol of a different type - a point with two rays departing from it, shaped like an aquarium angelfish.

The first picture taken from the top of the nearest hill shows a general view of a typical geoglyph, and the second one shows the end of one of the rays.

Геоглиф Сахары Фото decozar2
The Sahara geoglyph  Photo decozar2

этот символ выложен уже из плоских камнейAs you can see in the image, this symbol is laid out now of flat stones, which also needed to be assembled somewhere and delivered to the construction site.

Unfortunately, due to the fact that the Panoramio service has closed, and the photo has no georeferencing, it is now difficult to say which particular symbol it is. And accordingly, it is impossible to determine its exact dimensions. But one can clearly see that they are not small. And most importantly, it is obviously an artificial structure. And there are thousands of such structures.

In many satellite images, the pictures of geoglyphs are definitely darker than the surrounding terrain.

геоглиф сахары
The Sahara geoglyph  Photo  koudia c
At the image on the left it is clearly seen how exactly the effect was achieved. The stones laid in the center of the circle are much darker. Thus, it is possible, in some cases, the stones were selected not only by size, but also by color.

Now, when it is approximately clear from what and how geoglyphs are made, we can proceed to the consideration of their shapes. Which we are going to do in the next part.